Marcus of Arethusa
Marcus Of Arethusa, a bishop in the Eastern Church, was one of three prelates sent to Rome, A.D. 342, by the emperor Constantius II, to satisfy the Western emperor Constans of the justice and propriety of the deposition of Athanasius of Alexandria and Paulus of Constantinople. Marcus and his fellow-prelates are charged with having deceived Constans by presenting to him as their confession of faith, not the Arian or Eusebian confession, lately agreed on at the Synod of Antioch, but another confession of orthodox complexion, yet not fully orthodox, which is given by Socrates. Marcus appears to have acted with the Eusebian or Semi-Arian party, and took part on their side, probably in the Council of Philippopolis. held by the prelates of the East after their secession from Sardica (A.D. 347), and certainly in that of Sirmium (A.D. 359), where a heterodox confession of faith was drawn up by him. The confession which is given as Marcus's by Socrates is believed by modern critics not to be his. They ascribe to him the confession agreed upon by the Council of Ariminum, A.D. 359, and also given by Socrates. During the short reign of Julian, Marcus, then on old man, was cruelly tortured in various ways by the heathen populace of Arethusa, who were irritated by the success of his efforts to convert their fellow-townsmen to Christianity. He appears to have barely survived their cruelty. His sufferings for the Christian religion seem to have obliterated the discredit of his Arianism, for Gregory Nazianzen has eulogized him in the highest terms, and the Greek Church honors him as a martyr. See Athanasius, De Synodis, c. 24, s.v.; Socrates, Hist. Eccles. 2:18, 30, 37, with the notes of Valesius; Sozomen, Hist. Eccles. 3:1.0: 4:17; v. 10; Theodoret, Hist. Eccles. 3:7; Gregorius Naz. Oratio iv; Bolland, Acta Sanctor. Mart. 3:774, etc.; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. vi and vii; Smith, Dict. of Gr. and Rom. Biog. and Mythol. s.v.; Neander, Hist. of Chr. Ch. 2:51, 61.