Mantua an Italian province, formerly an independent duchy, had a high reputation in the time of the Romans. After sharing the fate of the rest of Northern Italy, it was seized by the Gonzagas about the commencement of the 14th century. The last duke of the house of Gonzaga died childless at Padua in 1708, when Mantua fell into the hands of Austria. In 1859 the province was given up to Italy, but the town of Mantua was not restored to Italy until 1866, since which time Mantua has formed a province of the new kingdom of Italy. SEE ITALY. The city of Mantua is noted in ecclesiastical history for a council that was held there in 1067 to judge pope Alexander II for a charge of simony brought against him. Alexander II took an oath to deny the accusation, and, proving the validity of his election, was recognized as the proper incumbent of the papal chair; while Honorius II (q.v.), the and-pope, was unanimously condemned as simoniacal. See Landon, Manual of Councils, p. 390.