Mantchuria a Chinese territory in Eastern Asia, extending between lat. 42° and 53° N., is now the possession partly of the Chinese and partly of the Russians. It, is bounded, according to its present limits, by the Amur on the north; by the Usuri and the Sungacha on the east, separating it from the Russian maritime territory of Orochi; by the Shan-Alin range on the south, separating it from Korea; and by a portion of the Khinganl Mountains, the river Sira-Muren, and the district of the upper Sungari, which separate it on the west from the desert of Gobi. Previously to the recent incursions of the Russians on the north, the area of this territory was about 682,000 square miles. Since the treaty of Nov. 14, 1860, the Russians possess all the territory east of the Usuri n and north and east of the Amur, and the Chinese possession is reduced to about 378,000 square miles. The population is variously estimated at from 3.000,000 to 4,000,000.

Mantchuria is divided into three provinces: Shing-King (formerly Leaotong), which alone contains upwards of 2,100,000 inhabitants, and the chief town of which, Mukden, is the seat of government for the three provinces; Girin, or Kirin; and Tsi-tsi-har. The country is mountainous, densely wooded in the south, but consisting chiefly of prairies and grass- land in the north. It is well watered and fruitful in the valleys. Chinese form the great bulk of the population. The Mantchus themselves are for the most part soldiers; they are the present rulers of China, who gradually subjugated the country. They are not a nomadic race like the Mongols, but are given to agriculture or hunting, according to the part of their country they inhabit. They are of a lighter complexion and slightly heavier build than the Chinese. have the same conformation of the eye-lids, but rather more beard, and their countenances present greater intellectual capacity. Literary pursuits are more esteemed by them than by Mongolians. They are of the same religious faith as the Chinese, but they are less under the priesthood. The Mantchus, in short, may be regarded as the most improvable race in Central Asia, if not on the continent. See Williams, Middle Kingdomn, 1:153 sq.; Chambers, Cyclops s.v. SEE CHINA; SEE TARTARY.

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