Maccovius or Makowsky, John
Maccovius Or Makowsky, John, a Polish Reformed theologian and writer, was born at Lobzenic in 1588; studied at the principal German universities; was received doctor of theology at Franecker in 1614; appointed extraordinary professor of theology in that university in 1615; ordinary professor in 1616; and died in 1644. He was particularly renowned as an opponent of the Jesuits, Socinians, and Arminians, and by his severity against the latter created many enemies. In his own Church he caused much disturbance by his attempts to restore the use of the scholastic method in the treatment of dogmatics. He used it first in his lectures, and afterwards also in his writings. See his Collegia theologica (Amstelod. 1623,1631): — Loci communes theologici (Fran. 1626): — Disinctiones et regules theologicae et philosophicae (published by Nicholas Arnold, Amsterd. 1656; Geneva, 1661). He was thereupon accused of heresy before the States of Friesland, at the instigation, it is said, of his colleague Sibrand Lubbertus. The affair was brought by Maccovius himself before the Synod of Dort, and a commission, having been appointed to investigate the case, reported that "Maccovium nullius Gentilismi, Judaismi, Pelagianismi, Socinianismi, aut alterius cujuscunque hbereseos reum teneri; immeritoque illum fuisse accusatum. Peccasse eum. quod quibusdamn ambiguis et obscuris phrasibus Scholasticis usus sit; quod Scholasticum docendi modum conetur in Belgicis Academiis introducere; quod eas selegerit qumestiones disceptandas, quibus gravantur Ecclesiae Belgicme. Monendum esse eum, ut cum Spiritu sancto loquatur, non cum Bellarmino aut Suarezio. Hoc vitio vertendum ipsi, quod distinctionem sufficientiam et efficientiae mortis Christi asseruerit esse futilem; quod negaverit, humanum genus lapsum esse objectnm predestinationis; quod dixerit, in ele t dee pea; uixeitDeum velle et deceere peccata; qud dixerit,Deum nullo modo velle omnium hominum salutem; quod dixerit, duas esse electiones" (see Epp. eccl. et thel. prcest. et erud. vtror . [Amst. 1684], p. 572 sq.). The synod adopted the report, and acted accordingly. Still this did not purge the Reformed Church of the scholastic method, as neither Maccovius himself nor his disciples abandoned it. See J. Cocceji Or. hab. in funere J. M. (1644); Bayle, Dict. Hist. et. Crit. 3:290 sq.; Heinrichs, Versuch einer Gesch. d. christl. Glaubenswahrheifen, p. 355; Schröckh, Christl. K. G. s. d. Ref: 5:148; Herzog, Real - Encyklop. 8:745; Hagenbach, Hist. of Doctr. 2:170 sq.; Gass, Dogmengesch. 2:441 sq. SEE SCHOLASTICISM.