pope, of Bologna, properly GERHARD CACCIANAMICI, was a regular Augustinian chorister of St. John of Lateran. He was made cardinal priest of Santa Croce of Jerusalem by Honorius II, and vice-chancellor and librarian of the Church of Rome by Innocent II. He was finally elected pope after the death of Celestine II, March 12, 1144. Soon after his accession, the Romans, under the guidance of Arnold of Brescia, rose against the papal authority, determined, by an Arnoldian spirit, SEE
ARNOLD OF BRESCIA, to re-establish the old republic, and to this end appointed a patrician in the capitol to govern them, and chose Jordan, son of Peter Leo, as such, giving him all the revenues of the city, and restricting the pope to the tithes and voluntary offerings. "Caesar should have the things that are Caesar's, the priest the things that are the priest's, as Christ ordained when Peter paid the tribute-money" (compare Neander, Ch. History, 4:151). The pope attempted to oppose this revolution, and, at the head of a band of armed followers, went forth to attack the capitol, but was wounded by a stone, and died of this wound, February 25, 1145. See Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Rom. Empire, 6:426 sq.; Reichel, See of Rome in the Middle Ages, page 226 sq.; Bower, History of the Popes, 6:52 sq. SEE TEMPORAL POWER OF THE POPE.