Lotze, Hermann Rudolf

Lotze, Hermann Rudolf a philosopher of Germany, was born May 21, 1817, at Bautzen, Saxony. He studied medicine and philosophy with such success that, five vears after his entrance to Leipsic University, he was able to qualify as a teacher in both faculties. In 1844 he was called to Gottingen as professor of philosophy. Before going there, however, he had published his metaphysics in 1844, and his logic in 1843. In 1881 he was called to Berlin, and died the same year. Lotze was a determined opponent of materialism in philosophy. "It is the glory of Hermann Lotze," says Joseph Cook, "to have broadened, by exact and not mystical methods, the philosophical outlook upon human nature, to have taken the emotions in all their ranges into view, as well as the intellectual faculties; and thus, gradually, through the strictest methods of modern research, to have risen to a philosophy of the soul and of the whole composite nature of man, in harmony with the truths of all the sciences — mental, moral, aesthetic, and physical." Others, however, see in the philosophical system of Lotze a decided tendency to that insidious form of idealistic pantheism which comes near to denying the objectivity of matter, or at least to resolving all phenomena into pure deity. SEE SCEPTICISM, RECENT PHASES OF. Lotze published, Metaphysik (Leipsic, 1841): — Allgemeine Pathologie und Therapie als mechanische Naturwissenschaften (1842; 2d ed. 1848): — System nder Philosophie (2

volumes; volume 1, Logik, 1843; new ed. 1874; volume 2, Metaphysik, 1878; 2d ed. 1884; Engl. transl. edited by B. Bosanquet, Oxford, 1883, 2 volumes): — Ueber den Begrsif der Schonheit (Gottingen, 1845): — Geschichte der Aesthetik in Deutschland (Munich, 1868): — Allgemeine Physiologie des kirperlichen Lebens (Leipsic, 1851): — Medizinische Psychologie (1852): — Mikrokosmus (1856-64, 3 volumes; 4th ed. 1884): — Grundzage der Psychologie (1881). See Caspari, Hermann Lotze, eine kritisch-historische Studie (Breslau, 1883); Pfleiderer, Lotze's philosophische Weltanschauung (Berlin, 1882; 2d ed. 1884); Cook, Spiritual Religion in Lotze's Philosophy (Boston Monday morning's lecture, published in the [N.Y.] Independent, March 20, 1884); Gardiner, Lotze's Theistic Philosophy (Presb. Review, October 1885). (B.P.)

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