Lombard(Us), Peter

Lombard(us), Peter a very noted scholastic theologian, derived his name from the province in which he was born, near Novara, in Lombardy, about the opening of the 12th century. He studied at Bologna, Rheims, and afterwards at Paris. Here he acquired a great reputation, was made first professor of theology in the university, and subsequently (in 1159) appointed bishop. He died in the French capital in 1164. Lombardus was considered one of the best scholars of his day, and a zealous priest. His principal work, Sententiarum libri quatuor, is a collection of passages from the fathers, of which he attempted to conciliate the apparent contradictions, somewhat in the manner in which Gratian attempted it in his Decret. He may be considered as the first author who collected theological doctrines into a complete system, and, whatever the faults of his work, it is the foundation of scholastic theology, and shows much care and system. It became the text- book in the schools of philosophy, obtained for him the title of "Master of Sentences" (Magister Sententiarum), and placed him at the head of the scholastic divines. The work was first published at Venice (1477, fol.) in four parts, each divided into different headings. After his death, one of the propositions contained in it ("Christus, secundum quod est homo, non est aliquid") was condemned by pope Alexander III. Thomas Aquinas and others have written commentaries on the book. He also wrote Commentaire stur les Psaumes (Paris, 1541, fol.): — Commentaire sur les Epitres de St. Paul (1537, fol.). His complete works were published at Nuremberg in 1478, and at Basle in 1486. An able editor was found in Aleaume, who published Peter the Lombard's works at Louvain in 1546. The best edition of the Sentences is by Antoine Ghenart (Louvain, 1567, 4to). See Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v.; Neander, Hist. of Chrtistian Dogmas (Bohn's edit.), volume 2 (see Index); Hefele, Conciliengesch. 5:545, 639, 785; Reuter, Alexander III, volume 3; Dupin, Nouv. Biblioth. des antiq. Ecclesiastiques, 16:45 sq.; Wetzer und Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon, 6:583 sq. (J.H.W.)

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