Laplace (PLACEUS), Josue de, a distinguished French Protestant theologian, was born in Brittany about the year 1605. After completing his studies in the University of Saumur, he taught philosophy for a while, and in 1625 was appointed pastor of the Church at Nantes. He left this situation in 1633, to become professor of theology in the University of Saurnur. Here, with L. Cappel and Moses Amyraut, he gave a new impulse to theological studies. Laplace, attacking the Calvinistic dogma of the imputation of original sin to all the descendants of Adam, endeavored to show its incompatibility with the divine mercy and justice. According to him, original sin is only indirectly imputed to man, and he has to answer only for his own individual sins. The orthodox party in the Calvinistic Church strongly opposed this doctrine, and, on the motion of Garissoles, the national Synod of Charenton (in 1644) formally condemned it, without, however, naming the author. The schools of Sedan, Geneva, and Holland denounced it also as impious and heretical. On the other hand, it obtained the approbation of all moderate people. A large number of provincial synods thought the national synod had been too hasty in condemning a doctrine before taking time to thoroughly investigate and discuss it; they refused to submit to the verdict until another national synod should decide. Laplace, for fear of increasing the difficulties, patiently submitted to the repeated attacks of Desmarets, Rivet, and other orthodox theologians. He only answered them after waiting vainly for ten years for the convocation of the synod which was to decide. He died at Saumur August 17, 1665. His works are, Discours en forme de dialogue entre un pere et son fils, etc. (Quevilly, 1629, 8vo); often reprinted, also under title Entretiens d'un pere et de son ils sur le changement de religion (Saumur, 1682, 12mo; translat. into German, Basle, 1665, 8vo): — Examen des Raisons pour et conire le sacrifice de la Messe (Saumur, 1639, 8vo): — Suite de l'Examen, etc. (Saumur, 1643, 8vo): — De locis Zachariae 11:13; 12:10; Malachia 3:1 (Saumur, 1650, 4to): — Exposition et Paraphrase du Cantique des Cantiques (Saumur, 1656, 8vo): — Explication typique de l'histoire de Joseph (transl. from the Latin of Laplace by Rosel, Saumur, 1658, 8vo): — De argumentis quibus efficitur Christum prius fuisse quam in utero beatae Virginis secundum carnem conciperetur (Saumur, 1649, 4to): — De Testiminoniis et Argumentis ex Veteri Testamento petitis, quibuns probatur Dominunt

nostrum Jesum-Christum esse Deum, praeditum essentia divina (Saumur, 1651, 4to): — Catechesis pro conversione Judeorum (Saumur, 4to): — Theses Theologicae de statu hominis lapsi ante gratiam (Saumur, 1640, 4to): this is the work whose doctrines were condemned by the Synod of Charenton in 1644: — De Imputatione primi peccati Adami (Saumur, 1655, 4to): a defense of his opinions: — Opuscula nonulla (Saumur, 1656, 8vo): — Syntagma Thesium theologicarum (Saumur, 1660, 3 parts 4to; 4th part, 1664). A complete collection of Laplace's works was published under the style Opera Omnia (Franeker, 1699, and Aubincit, 1702, 2 volumes, 4to). See Mosheim, Ecclesiastical History, 3:404; Aymon, Synodes des Eglises Reformees de France, 2:680; Weismann, Historia Ecces. saec. 17, page 919; Haag, La France Protestante; T. Colani, Revue de Theologie, October 1855; Bartholmess, Discours sur la vie et le caractre de J. de La Place, in the Bulletin de la Societe de l'histoire du Protestantisme Francais (1853); Hook, Eccles. Biography, 8:97; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, 29:529; Herzog, Real-Encycklop. 11:755 sq. (J.N.P.)

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