(from the Thibetan b-Lanma [pronounced Lama], spiritual teacher or lord) is the Thibetan form of Buddhism (q.v.), blended with and modified by the religions which preceded it in that portion of China. Among these was the belief in the "Mystic Cross," which originated in the circumstance that an Indian prince of the Litsabyi or Lichhavyi race, being conquered in v.ar, sought refuge in Thilet, where he became king. The Lichhavyis of Vaisili professed belief in " Swasti." Sw.ati is a monogrammatic sign formed of the letters Su and Ti, and " Suti" is the Pall form of the Sanskrit "Swasti," a compound of su (well) and asti (it is); so that "swasti" implies complete resignation under all circumstances, which was the chief dogma of the fatalists who called themselves Swastikas, or followers of the Mystic Cross. These people were also annihilationists; hence their Thibetan name of Mu-stegs-pa or Finitimists. They were grossly atheistical and indecent in dress, but called themselves "Pure-doers," and the synonymous title Punya, "the pure," was carried with them into Thibet, and became modified into Pon or the " Bons." This form of faith continued for nine centuries, until Buddhism was generally introduced about the middle of the 7th century. Even then the followers of the Mystic Cross were still powerful.
History. — Buddhism was probably introduced into Thibet during the reign of Asoka, who propagated that religion with ardor upwards of two thousand vears ago. In B.C. 240, at the close of the third synodl, numerous missionaries were dispatched to all surrounding countries to spread the doctrines of Sakyamuni. But the more formal history of Buddhism in Thibet begins with king Srongtsan Gampo (born A.D. 617, died 698), who sent to India his prime minister Thumi Samnbhota, with sixteen companions, to study letters and religion. He had the sacred books translated into Thibetan, and issued laws abolishing all other religions, and directing the establishment of this one. His wives, the one a Nepaulese, the other a Chinese, greatly assisted him in these enterprises. He met, however, with only tolerable success, and the religion did not greatly flourish. Under king Thisrong-de-tsan (A.D. 728-786) Buddhism was more successful in Thibet, overcoming the efforts of the chief's to crush the "new religion." This prince induced great teachers from Bengal and Kafiristan to reside in Thibet. They superseded the Chinese priests, who were the earliest Buddhist missionaries. A public disputation on religions, which was ordered by the king, greatly increased the influence of the Indian priests. Large monasteries were erected, and a temple at Samye, and the translation of sacred books into the vernacular was more energetically conducted. King Langdar or Langidharma tried to abolish Buddhism, and in his efforts to do so commanded the destruction of all temples, monasteries, images, and sacred books pertaining to that religion. The indignation against these efforts was so intense that it resulted in the murder of the king in A.D. 900. His son and successor was also unfavorably disposed towards Buddhism, and gradually the new religion lost many adherents, and those still remaining faithful even suffered persecution.
From A.D. 971 dates the revival of Buddhism, or the second general effort to propagate this religion in Thibet, under Bilamgur Tsan, who rebuilt eight temples, and under whom the priests who had fled the country returned, and fresh accessions were made from the priesthood of India. Among those from India came in A.D. 1041 the celebrated priest Atisha. In the 12th or 13th century the modification of Buddhism known as the Tantrika mysticism was introduced. Considerably later a great impetus was given to Buddhism by the celebrated reformer Tsonkhapa (born A.D. 1357), who endeavored, about the opening of the 15th century, to unite the dialectical and mystical schools, and to put an end to the tricks, pretended miracles, and other corruptions of the priesthood. He published new works on religion; but, so far as regards the marked similarity between the ceremonial of the Chinese Buddhists and some Christian sects, Schlagintweit says that "we are not yet able to decide the question as to how far Buddhism may have borrowed from Christianity, but the rites of the Buddhists enumerated by the French missionary (Huc) can for the most part either be traced back to institutions peculiar to Buddhism, or they have sprung up in periods posterior to Tsonkhapa" (q.v.).
Sects.-According to Schlagintweit, there was no division of Lamaism into sects previous to the 11th century. Subsequently, however, there arose numerous subdivisions of the people, nine of which still exist, which are reputed orthodox, though there is not much known about them. In distinction from the other sects which Tsonkhapa labored energetically to supersede, he ordered his disciples to wear a yellow dress instead of red. the color of the older religionists, and, to make the distinction still greater, he provided a peculiar pattern for a cap, also to be made of yellow cloth.
1. The eldest of the primitive sects is the Nyigmapa. The lamas of Bhutan and Ladal belong to this sect, and they adhere to ancient rites, ceremonies, and usages such as obtained among the earliest Chinese priests. They acknowledge some sacred books not included in the Kanljur or T'anjur hereinafter mentioned.
2. Another ancient sect is the Uregyepa, or the disciples of Urgyen, who differ from the first in their worship of Amitabha as Padma Sambhava.
3. A sect founded by Brormston (born A.D. 1002) observe only " precepts" and not " transcendental wisdom." This sect wear a red dress.
4. The Sakyapca, whose particular tenets are not known, but who wear a red dress also.
5. The Gelukpa (Galdanpa or Geldampa) adhere to the doctrines of Tsonkhapa, and this sect is now the most numerous in Thibet.
6. The Kargyutpa, leave Prajna Parimita, resting in their observance of the Aphorisms (Sutras) and in the "succession of precepts."
7. The Karmapa, and,
8. Brikungpa, are not much known.
9. The Brugpa (Dugp or Dad Dugpa) have a particular worship of the thunderbolt (Dorge) which fell from heaven in Eastern Thibet. This sect observe the Tantrika mysticism.
In addition to the above there is the "Bon" religion, the followers of which are called Bonpas. They own many wealthy monasteries. They are probably the descendants of those who did not originally accept Buddhism, but preserved the ancient rites and superstitions of the country.
Sacred Books. — Lamaism has a voluminous sacred literature. Originally it consisted almost wholly of translations, but after this it developed rapidly all indigenous element, especially after the 14th century, under the impulse given to it by Tsonkhapa. The commentaries on the sacred text are frequently in the vernacular. But the great works are a compilation of Sanskrit translators, containing sacred and profane publications of different periods. These are respectively translations of "the commandments" and of the doctrines of Sakyamuni, in which are embraced philosophy, logic, rhetoric, and Sanskrit grammar. The principal of these translations date from about the 9th century. Minor ones are probably of later origin, but the modern arrangement of the works is probably not older than the present century. These collections were printed in 1728-46, by order of the regent of Lhassa, and are now printed at many of the monasteries. They are entitled "Kanjur and Tanjur;" according to Müller, the proper spelling is Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur.
The Kanjur consists of the following sections:
1. Dulva (Sanscrit, Vinaya), or discipline;
2. Sher-phjin (Sans. Prajnaparamita), or philosophy and metaphyics;
3. Phalchhen (Sans. Buddhavata Sangha), or the doctrine of the Buddhas, their incarnations, etc.;
4. dKon brTsegss (Sans. Ratmakuto), or the collection of precious things;
5. mDo ssDe (Sans. Sutrantra), or the collection of Stitras;
6. Mjang dass (Sans. Nirvana), or the liberation from wordily pains;
7. rGjud (Sans. Tantras), or incantations, etc." (Chambers). There are many editions of the Kanjur, varying from 100 to 108 volumes folio. It embraces 1083 distinct works. Massive as this code is, editions of it have been printed at Pekin, Lhassa, and other places. These have been sold for sums ranging as high as £600, or, when men deal in kine, for 7000 oxen. A most, valuable analysis of this immense Bible is given in the Asiatic Researches, volume 20, by Alexander Csoma de Koros, a Hungarian who made his way to Thibet on foot for other purposes, but became an enthusiastic student of the Thibetan Scriptures.
The Tanjur is a collection of treatises in 225 volumes, elegantly printed at Pekin, containing translations from Sanskrit and Prakrit, on dogmas, philosophy, grammar, medicine, and ethics, with Amara's Rosha or vocabulary, and fragments of the Mahabharata and of other epic poems. The work of the great reformer, the history of Buddhism, lives of saints, and all sorts of works on theology and magic, fill the libraries. But the Thibetans also possess annals, genealogies, and laws, as, for instance, the "Mirror of Kings" (translated into Mongolic by Ssanang Ssetsen, and into German by Schmidt), or Bodhimor ("Way to Wisdom"), and works on astronomy and chronology" (Appleton).
Among the native sacred literature of Thibet is the historical book called Mani Kanmbum, containing the legendary tales of Padmapani's propagation of Buddhism in Thibet, and the origin and application of the sacred formula "Om Mani Padesa Hum." It contains a description of the wonderful region Sukhavati, where Amitabha sits enthroned, and where those are who most merit blissful existence; a history of creation; prayers to Padmapani, and the advantages of frequent repetition of Om Mani; the meaning of that sacred sentence; an account of the figurative representations of Padmapani, and of his images, which represent him with faces varying from three to one thousand. It contains, moreover, the ethics and religious ordinances of Buddhism; biography; a description of the irresistible power of "Om Mani," etc., and tells how it secures deliverance from being reborn; legends, translations of sacred books, etc. This has been translated into Mongolian.
Grades of Initiation. — The Buddhist community is divided into three classes. The first or highest is known in Thibet as True Intelligence, or Chang Chub, meaning "the perfect" or "accomplished;" and Chang Chhub Sempali, or "Perfect Strength of Mind," because the graduate has accomplished the grand object of life, which is the perfect suppression of all bodily desire and complete abstraction of mind. These are the Bodhisatwas of Sanskrit (or, in Chinese. Pusas), who are incipient Buddhas, rising by self-sacrifice and their good influence over their fellow- men to the highest goal. Every age produces a number of these Bodhisatwas. The second class comprises those having "individual intelligence" or self-intelligence, the Pratyeka, who turn not out of the way. The third is the Sravaka or auditor (listener).
Orders of Beings. — The self-existent Adi Buddha, by five spontaneous acts of divine wisdom, and by five exertions of mental reflection (dhyan), projected from his own essence five intelligences of the first order, known as the Pancha Dhyani-Buddha, or "Five celestial Buddhas," whose names are Vairochana, Akshobya, Ratna Sambhava, Amitabha, and Amogha Siddha. These five intelligences of the first order created "five intelligences" of a second order, or Bodhisatwas, who "become creative agents in the hands of God, or serve as links uniting him with all the lower grades of creaturely existence." The Lokeswaras (Jigten Baugchuk), or "Lords of the World," are also acknowledged in Thibetan Buddhism. All these are celestial beings, the spontaneous emanations from the Deity, who have never been subject to the pains of transmigration.
Inferior to these are the created or mortal beings, divided into six classes, named Droba Rikdruk, or "Six advances or progressors," because their souls advance by transmigration from one state to a better one, until they finally attain absorption, and are no longer subject to transmigration. These six are:
1. Lha, or gods; 2. Lha ma yin, Titans; 3. Mi, which equals man; 4. Dudro, brutes, 5. Yidok, goblins; 6. Myalba, the damned.
The hells are eight cold and sixteen hot, and are favorite subjects of Chinese and Thibetan painters. The punishment is not everlasting, but after expiation the person may be born again.
Objects of Worship. — In early periods Lamaism confined its worship to the triad Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha, and pious reverence was shown to the relics of former Buddhas, as well as to those of Sakya himself and his principal disciples; but there is no mention of the elaborate system of Dhyani Buddhas, Padmapani, etc., earlier than about A.D. 400. Primitive Buddhism is now stated to have been undoubtedly atheistic, but was in later ages greatly modified.
Sakyamuni is worshipped in Ladak as "Shakya Thubba," yet there is a legend to the effect that at the end of twenty-five centuries from the present time he is to be superseded by a more benign Buddha, called Maitreya, or Mi-le. The people, however, worship others equally with Sakya, though there is reason to believe that the worship is of later date, as Fa Hian is the first who makes mention of it. He speaks of it as extant at the time of his visit in A.D. 400. These other deities are Padmapani, Jamya, and Chanirazik (or Padmapani, Manju Sri, and Ava Lokiteswara); and though the people still confirm an oath by appealing to the three supremacies of the Buddhist triad, yet. when they undertake any enterprise or Legin a journey, their prayers for success are almost invariably addressed to Padmapani. The mystic sentence "On Mani Padma Hum" is repeated in worship, and is constantly heard as one moves through the country. It has been variously translated as "Oh, the jewel in the lotus!" and "Hail to him of the jewel and the lotus!" and "Glory to the lotus-bearer Hum!"
Padmapani is a "Dhyani Bodhisattna," and of all the gods is most frequently worshipped, because he is a representative of Sakyamuni, and guardian and propagator of his faith until the appearance of the Buddha Mlaitreya. He is the patron deity of Thibet, and manifests himself from age to age in human shape, becoming Dalai Lama (see below) by the emission of a beam of light, and ultimately is to be born as the most perfect Buddha — not in India, where his predecessors became such, but in Thibet. He has a great many names, and is represented in various figures, sometimes having eleven faces and eight hands, the faces forming a pyramid ranged in four rows, each series being of a different complexion, as white, yellow, blue, red; sometimes he is represented as having one head and four arms.
Co-regent with Padmapani is Manju Sri, who diffuses religious truth, bearing a naked sword as symbolic of power and acumen; he is lord of the intellect, and the author of the joy of the family circle, and is deputy governor of the whole earth. The representations of him in Thibet, as in Mongolia, make him to have innumerable eyes and hands, and even ten heads, crowned, and rising in the form of a cone, one above another; he is often represented as incarnate in the person of some Dalai Lama as Padmapani.
It must not be supposed, however, that these are the only objects of worship in Thibet. The earliest worship of that country was a species of nature or element worship; and, as Lamaism ingrafted the ancient gods and spirits of the former inhabitants on itself, the poorer people still make offerings to their old divinities, the gods of the hills, the woods, the dales, the mountains, the rivers, and have field, family, and house divinities. Lamaism was, besides this, greatly affected by its contact with the Shamanism (q.v.) of the Mongolians.
These gods are particles of the Supreme Intelligence, and, though they are many, they are all a multiplication of the one God. The Thibetan name for deity is Sha, the equivalent of the Sanskrit Deva. They assist man, each having his own sphere, within which he reigns supreme. These gods are both male and female.
There are, besides these, malignant gods, called "Da," or enemy, and "Geg," devil. The most malignant of them are, 1. Lhamayin, to whom many ill-natured spirits are subject. They cause untimely death. 2. The Dudpos, or judges of the dead. These try to prevent the depopulation of the world by prompting evil desire, by becoming beautiful women. They disturb devout assemblies. They are, of course, antagonized by the more benevolent deities, among whom some become specially famous, as the Drag-sheds, "the cruel hangmen," who are subdivided into eight classes. Legends concerning them abound.
Doctrines. — According to Csömä (in the Bengal Society Journal, 7:145), the higher philosophies are not popularly understood, yet the people of Thibet are in general tolerably familiar with the doctrine of the Three Vehicles (Triyana), a dogma of the Mahayani school, explained in the Thibetan Compendium called Lamrim, or "The gradual Way to Perfection." The argument of the book is to the effect that the Buddha dogmas are intended for the lowest, middle, and highest people, and they are graded accordingly. In the matter of creeds, for instance, there is the following order. The lowest people must believe in God, future life, and that the fruit of works is to be earned in this life, while the middle class are to know (1) that every compound is perishable; (2) that all imperfection is pain, and that deliverance from bodily existence is the only real happiness. A person of the highest class, in addition to all the foregoing, must know that from the body to the Supreme Soul nothing is existent but himself; that he will not always be, nor ever cease absolutely from being.
In moral duties there is a like gradation. The vulgar are to practice ten virtues, to which the middle class are to add meditation, wisdom, etc.; while the superior class must, in addition to the foregoing, practice the six transcendental virtues. In their ultimate destiny this gradation pursues these classes, the lowest being admitted to become men, gods, etc., the next having hope of rebirth in Sukhavati, without pain or bodily existence, and the best expecting to reach themselves Nirvana, and to lead others thereunto also. The priests who take the vows called Dom can alone hope for this.
A more popular code, however, is necessary for simpler people, and hence the following eight precepts commonly obtain:
1. To seek to take refuge only with Buddha.
2. To form in one's mind the resolution to strive to attain the highest degree of perfection, in order to be united with the Supreme Intelligence.
3. To prostrate one's self before the image of Buddha to adore him.
4. To bring offerings before him, such as are pleasing to any of the six senses, as lights, flowers, garlands, incense, perfumes, all kinds of edibles and drinkables, stuffs, cloth, etc., for garments, and hanging ornaments.
5. To make music, sing hymns, and utter the praises of Buddha, respecting his person and doctrines, love or mercy, perfections or attributes, and his acts or performances for the benefit of all animal beings.
6. To confess one's sins with a contrite heart, to ask forgiveness for them, and to resolve sincerely not to commit the like hereafter.
7. To rejoice in the moral merits of all animal beings, and to wish that they may thereby obtain final emancipation or beatitude.
8. To pray and entreat all Buddhas that are now in the world to turn the wheel of religion (or to teach their doctrines), and not to leave the world too soon, but to remain here for many ages or kalpas.
Buddhism in Thibet, as elsewhere, accepts the doctrine of metempsychosis. The forms under which any living beings may be reborn are sixfold, enumerated previously as among the inferior objects of worship. Good works involve rebirth, just as bad ones do. Shinje, "the Lord of the Dead," determines the end of life and the form of the rebirth. He has a wonderful mirror, which reflects the good and bad actions of men, and a balance in which to weigh them. When being in any one form must cease, he sends his servants to bring the soul before him for the announcement of the form it shall next assume. If the servant bring the wrong person the mirror shows it, and the soul is dismissed.
The object of rebirth being the expiation of sins, atonement for them may lessen these if made in this life, as will also the subduing of evil desires, the practice of virtue, and confession. The Mahavana school says that confession confers entire absolution from sins. So also Thibetan Buddhism now considers it. Confession. however, includes repentance and promises of amendment. Various ceremonies accompany the avowal. Consecrated water must be used, which, however, can only be rendered fit by the priests by a ceremony called Tvisol, or "Entreaties for ablution." Abstinence from food and recitation of prayers are also observed, but the commonest form is that of a simple address to the gods. The confessors who deliver from sins are generally Buddhas who preceded Sakyamuni, or holy spirits equal in power to Buddhas. There are thirty-five of these eminent in this work, known as the "thirty-five Buddhas of Confession," beautifully colored images of whom are found in the monasteries, and to whom prayers are made in the Thibetan liturgy.
Regarding the future abode of the blessed, Lamaism differs from other Buddhism. Nirvana (annihilation) is not carefully pointed out, and the sacred books say it is impossible to define its attributes and properties. But to those failing to obtain Nirvana, or unconscious existence, the next best state that can be offered is Sukhavati, entrance upon which exempts from rebirth, but not from absolute existence. Thibetans do not now generally distinguish between the two, the great stress being laid on the deliverance from rebirth. This region is located towards the west, in a large lake, the surface of which is covered with lotus-flowers of rare perfume, and of red and white color. Devotion is kindled by birds of Paradise, food and clothing being had for the wishing. Human forms may be assumed and laid aside at pleasure. These are on their way to be Buddhas.
Priesthood. — The first organization of the Thibetan clergy dates from A.D. 726-786, and the present hierarchical system from about the 15th century. In A.D. 1417 the Lama Tsonkhapa founded the Golden Monastery, but the Dalai Lama at Lhassa and the Panchen Rinpoche, both credited with divine origin, gained greater influence than that of Golden.
The Dalai Lama (Grand Lama) is an incarnation of the "Dhyani Bodhisattwa" Chenrisi, who becomes reincorporated by a beam of light which leaves him and enters the person selected for the descent. The "Panchen," on the other hand, are incorporations of the father of Chenrisi, who was named Amitabha. The first to assume the title of "His precious Majesty," and the first Dalai Lama, was Gedun Grub (1389-1473). With the fifth Dalai Lama the temporal government was extended over all Thibet. These Dalai Lamas are elected by the priests, but since A.D. 1792 these elections have been greatly influenced by the Chinese government at Pekin. Next below the Dalai Lamas are the superiors of monasteries, called Khanpos. They are appointed by the Dalai Lamas for a term of three or six years, and some of them are considered to be incarnations. The third in grade are the superintendents of choral songs and the music of the divine services, and are termed Budzad. Next succeeding are the Gebkoi, who are elected by the monks to maintain order; below the Gebkoi are the abbots. The sixth in order is the Lama, a title which literally pertains only to "superior" priests, but, by courtesy, is now applied to all Buddhist priests. The Tsikhan are astrologers, who marry, are fortune-tellers, conjure evil spirits, etc. Their instruments are an arrow and triangle.
In the organization of the orders there is a code of some two hundred and fifty rulers. Celibacy and poverty have had much to do in the formation of the character of the priesthood. The vow to lead a life of celibacy is rarely revoked. While the priests personally must continue poor, the monasteries may be wealthy, and they actually have great revenues. Living on alms, most is collected about harvest time. Fees from funerals, marriages, illness, etc., are among their resources. The property of the monasteries is free from taxation.
The elder son generally becomes a lama. In 1855 the total number of lamas, as estimated in the Bengal Society Journal, was 18,500, in twelve monasteries of Eastern Thibet. In Western Thibet Cunningham estimates one to every thirteen laymen, while in Spiti they number one to seven of the population.
These priests till the gardens attached to the monasteries, revolve prayer cylinders, carve blocks, and paint. They are often illiterate, and, though most of them know how to read and write, they do not care to acquire knowledge. Their dress and caps are of double felt with charms between the folds, or they wear large straw hats. The head lama's cap is generally low and conical, though some are hexagonal, and others like a miter. They wear also a gown, which reaches to the calves of their legs; this has a slender girdle and an upright collar. They wear also trowsers, and boots of stiff felt. They carry rosaries containing 108 beads, made of wood, pebbles, or bones. Their amulet boxes contain images of deities, relics, and objects dreaded by evil spirits.
Buildings and Monsuments. — The priests live in monasteries, each of which receives a religious name. The architecture is similar to that of the houses of the wealthy. The entrance faces either the south or east. They are always decorated with flags. They sometimes consist of one large house, several stories high, and in other cases of several buildings with temples attached. In their exterior appearance they are much inferior to those of other countries.
The temples have nothing imposing about them. The roofs are flat or sloping, with square holes for windows and skylights. The walls are towards the quarters of the heavens. The north side should be colored green, the south side yellow, the east side white, the west red. They are not always, however, in this order. The interior of the building is generally one large room, with side halls decorated with paintings, images, etc. The side halls contain the library, the volumes of which are on shelves, and sometimes wrapped in silk. In the corners are statues of deities, the religious dresses of the priests, musical instruments, and other articles of sacred appointment. "The Lamaic temples are of Indo-Chinese form, square, fronting the east in Thibet and the south in Mongolia. They are often cruciform. There are three gates, and three interior divisions, viz., the entrance-hall, the body of the edifice with two parallel rows of columns, and the sanctuary with the throne of the high lama" (Appleton). For a description of two of the largest lama temples in China, see Doolittle, Social Life of the Chinese, 2:457 sq.
The Chodtens are monuments from eight to fifteen feet, or even sometimes forty feet high. They are receptacles for the offerings of the people, and repositories of relics, and are very much revered by the lamas. They are set up in the. temples, and are moulded from metals, or even of clay and straw.
The Man is a wall six feet long and four or five feet broad, of sacred use. Derchoks and lapchas are sacred flags and heaps of stones. Prayers are inscribed on the flags, and the people seem ever eager to make new lapchas.
Images, etc. — The representations of deities and other sacred personages are copied everywhere. From the earliest period relics and images of Buddha have been honored and worshipped with simple ceremonies, as prostrations, presentation of flowers, perfumes, prayers, and hymns. At the present day, Buddhas preceding Sakvamuni, as well as the Dhyani Buddhas, a host of gods, spirits deified, priests of local reputation, are all represented in images or pictures. The "Gallery of Portraits" has drawings of over three hundred saints.
The lamas have a monopoly of the manufacture of these, as they are efficacious only after the performance of certain ceremonies at many junctures in their preparation, and these the lamas alone know how to perform. Pictures must be commenced on prescribed days; on certain other days the eyes must be painted, etc. Drawings and paintings are traced with pinholes, through which powder is sifted; they are bordered by several strips of silk, of blue, yellow, red, and other colors. Statues and bass-reliefs of clay, papier-mache, bread-dough, (or metals, or even of butter run in a mould, are made. The best executed contain relics, as ashes, bones, hair, rags, and grain; these are sometimes contained in a hole in the bottom of the image.
The images and statues of the Buddha, Bodhisattwas, and the Dragsheds differ greatly from each other. Sakyamuni is represented in many attitudes, with one hand uplifted or holding an alms-bowl, as sitting, or as recumbent. Padmapani has sometimes eleven faces and a thousand hands. "Melha, the god of fire, when driving away evil spirits, rides a red ram, and has a horrible countenance;" but he is represented in many other attitudes. The Bodhisattwas have a shining countenance. and are seated on a lotus-flower. The Dragsheds who protect against evil spirits are fierce-looking, of dark complexion, and sometimes have a third eye in the forehead, to represent their wisdom. They are almost naked, but wear a necklace of human skulls, and have rings on their arms and ankles. They have in their hands various instruments symbolic of their power. The Dorje, or thunderbolt, "may best be represented by four or eight metallic hoops joined together so as to form two balls," which are on a staff, with points projecting. The Phurbu, or "nail," the Bechon, "club," and Zagpa, or "snare" to catch evil spirits, and the Kapâla, or drinking-vessel, which is a human skull, are among these sacred instruments.
Forms of Worship. — The religious services consist of singing, accompanied with instrumental music, offerings, prayers, etc. The offerings are of clarified butter, flour, tamarind-wood, flowers, grain, peacock feathers, etc. There are no blood-offerings, as any sacrifices entailing injury to life are strictly forbidden in the Buddhistic faith. Drums, trumpets made of the human thigh-bone, cymbals, and flageolets, are among the sacred musical instruments.
The Prayer cylinder is an instrument peculiar to the Buddhists. It is called "khorben" (Hardy says hGorlas or Tchukor, according to Huc=turning- prayer). It is generally of brass, enveloped in wood or leather. A wooden handle passes through the cylinder, forming its axis, around which is rolled the long strip of cloth or paper on which is the prayer of printed sacred sentences. A small pebble or piece of metal, at the end of a short chain, facilitates the rotation of the cylinder in the hand. Large cylinders near the monasteries are kept in motion by persons employed for the purpose, or by being attached to streams of running water like a mill-wheel. Each revolution, if made slowly, and from right to left, is equivalent to the repetition of the sentences enclosed. (Generally the inscription is only a repetition of the sentence "Om mani padma hum." There is also a sacred drama.
Sacred Days and Festivals. — The monthly festivals are four, and are connected with the phases of the moon. No animal food must be eaten, but ordinary avocations need not be discontinued. There are particular festivals for each month, and three great annual festivals. "The Log gSsar, or the festival of the new year, in February, marks the commencement of the season of spring, or the victory of light and warmth over darkness and cold. The Lamaists, like the Buddhists, celebrate it in commemoration of the victory obtained by the Buddha Sakyamuni over the six heretic teachers. It lasts fifteen days, and consists of a series of feasts dances, illuminations, and other manifestations of joy; it is, in short, the Thibetan Carnival. The second festival, probably the oldest festival of the Buddhistic Church, is held in commemoration of the conception or incarnation of the Buddha, and marks the commencement of summer. The third is the water- feast, in August and September, marking the commencement of autumn" (Chambers).
Ceremonies. — Tvisol, or prayer for ablution, is among the most sacred of Buddhist rites. The "ceremony of continued abstinence" is performed once or twice a year, and occupies four days, prayers being read in praise of Padmapani.
Rites are also observed for the attainment of supernatural faculties called Siddhi, of which eight classes are distinguished: the power to conjure; longevity; water of life; discovery of hidden treasures; entering into Indra's cave; the art of making gold; the transformation of earth into gold; the acquiring of the inappreciable jewel.
This siddhi, however, cannot be obtained without certain austerities, observances, and incantations. The latter must be repeated a fixed number of times, as, for instance, 100,000 times a day. Meditation is always necessary.
Peculiar ceremonies are observed for securing the assistance of the gods: these are the rite Dubjed, or making ready a burnt-offering, which has various names and is differently observed, as the "sacrifice for peace," the "rich sacrifice," to secure good harvests; the sacrifice for power, to obtain influence or success; the "fierce sacrifice," to secure protection from untimely death, etc. Incantation of Lungta, or "the horse of the wind," is powerful for good, as is also the talisman Changpo, which protects from evil spirits. The evil spirits are limited in their mischief by the magical figure Phurbu, a triangle drawn on paper covered with charms. Among the multitudinous ceremonies are those performed in cases of illness. Each malignant spirit causes some particular disease: Rahu inflicts palsy, others cause children to fall sick, etc. Charms, noisy music, and prayers accompany what rude medicine is administered.
"Baptism and confirmation are the two principal sacraments of Lamaism. The former is administered on the third or tenth day after birth; the latter, generally when the child can walk or speak. The marriage ceremony is to Thibetans not a religious, but a civil act; nevertheless, the lamas know how to turn it to the best advantage, as it is from them that the bridegroom and bride have to learn the auspicious day when it should be performed; nor do they fail to complete the act with prayers and rites, which must be responded to with handsome presents" (Chambers).
"The bodies of rich laymen are buried, and their ashes preserved, while those of the common people are either exposed to be devoured by birds or eaten by sacred dogs, which are kept for the purpose, and the bones are pounded in mortars, and given to the animals in the shape of balls. Rich persons about to die are assisted by lamas, who let out the soul by pulling the skin from the skull and making a hole in it. Religious services for departed souls are said in the ratio of payment received. The mode of the funeral is determined by astrology" (Appleton).
Great importance is attached to astronomy, and tables of divination are in high esteem, as are soothsayers' formulas.
Holy Places. — "The principal holy place in Thibet is Lassa, with the monasteries Lha-brang, the cathedral; Ra-mo-tshhe (great circuit), wherein is the Chinese idol of Fo; and Moru (pure), having a celebrated printing- office. Near the city is Gar-ma-khian (mother cloister), wherein bad spirits are personated, and about a mile distant a three-pointed hill, with the chief of all monasteries and palaces, called Potala (Buddha's Mount), occupied by about 10,000 lamas in various dwellings. Several fine parks and gardens adorn the environs of the holy city. Among the thirty great lamaseries in the neighborhood are Sse-ra (golden), on the road to Mongolia, with Buddha's scepter floating in the air, and 15,000 lamas; 'Brass ssPungss (branch-heap), founded by the reformer, with a Mongolic school, 300 sorcerers, and 15,000 lamas; and dGal Dan (Joy of heaven), also built by the reformer, whose body sometimes converses with the 8000 lamas. On the road to Ssu-tchuan is Lha-ri (god mountain), with a fine temple; there is another sacred place in the metropolis of Kham; others at Issha-mDo (two ways), Djaya, etc., with printing offices; many others on the roads to Pekin, besides the northern monastery; all containing an incredible number of monks, under Khutukhtus and lower lamas; so that father Huc counts 3000 monasteries in U alone; others 84,000 monks in U, Tsang, and Kham, of the yellow sect, hermits, beggars, and vagabonds not included. About 120 miles south-west from Lassa, near the confluence of the Painorm with the great gTsangpo-tshhu (Sanpu), is the second metropolis of Lamaism, viz. bKra-Shiss-Lhun-po (mount of grace), also called bLabrang, with five great cenobies, many temples, palaces, mausoleums, pyramids, and the like. In the neighboring city there is a Chinese garrison. About midway between the two bLa-brangs there are three rocky islands in a lake, called gYang- brog (happy desert; Yambro on English maps), which contain temples, a magnificent palace, and thousands of monks and nuns, subject to the rDo- rDje-Phag-mo (saint, or adamantine sow), a female Khutukhtu, who becomes incarnated with a figure of a sow's snout on her neck, in consequence of her having escaped from Lassa during the troubles of the regency in the shape of that animal. The Chinese believe her to be the incarnate Ursa Major. On the road to Nepaul there are the sNar-thang monastery, where the Kanjur was printed; and Ssaskya, mentioned above, now the see of the red-capped Gong-rDogss (high lord) Rin-po-tshhe, who is hereditary. On the road to Bhotan are the monasteries Kisu and Gantuum Gumba of Turner, and many others, swarming with lamas, some filled with Annis (nuns). Bhotan is subject to the Dalai, but there are also three red-capped Rin-po-tshhe. The metropolis is bKra-Shiss Tshoss rDsong (gloria salutis fideique arx, Turner's Tassisudon), under an incarnate great lama and a secular Dharma-raja, who rules over six districts, with about 10,000 lamas and 45,000 families. In Sikkim the aboriginal Leptchas have many mendicant lamas who practice magic, the other tribes being pure Buddhists. Buddhism flourished in Nepaul as early as the 7th century of our aera. It now exists there with Brahminism and Mohammedanism, so that Nepaul has also a double literature. In Kunawar, and elsewhere on the Upper Sutlej, there are many great monasteries of both the yellow and the red caps, living in peace with each other. At Sungnam there is a great library, a printing establishment, and a gigantic statue of Buddha. Ladakh became Buddhist before our era; its history is even less known than that of Thibet. Although invaded by Moslems (about 1650), it has many lamas, both male and female. In China there are two Buddhistic sects, viz. that of Fo, since A.D. 65, fostered by the government, very numerous, but without hierarchy, each monastery being under an abbot, who is a citizen of the 12th class; and the Lamaists, organized, as in Thibet, under the ministry of foreign affairs, with three Khutukhtus at Pekin, one of whom is attached to the court, while another's diocese is in South Mongolia, and the third governs the central one of their great monasteries. The most celebrated temples in the eighteen provinces are one on the U-tai-shan (five-topped mountain), in Shan-si, and one in Yunnan. In Si-fan, or Tangut, about the Koko-Nor, Lamaism flourished under the Hia at the close of the 9th century. The great reformer was incarnated in Amdo. The great cenoby of ssKubum was visited and endowed by Khanghi, and has a celebrated university. Mongolia is the paradise of lamas, they forming about one eighth of its population. Its patriarch, the Gegen-Khutukhtu, a Bodhisattwa of Maitreya, is equal in rank to both Thibetan popes, resides at Urga, on the road between Pekin and Kiachta, lat. 48° 20', with about 20,000 monks, and has attained the highest Khubilghanism by sixteen incarnations, having been first the son of Altan Khakhan of the Khalkas, and having once died (1839), after a visit to Pekin, either by poison or from licentiousness. The Urgan cenoby owns about 30,000 families of slaves. The cathedral at Kuku Khotun, among the Turned, is under an incarnate patriarch, now second to the preceding. Most cenobies and temples now extant in Mongolia were built or restored after the second conversion. A Khutukhtu rules over the celebrated establishment of the 'five towers.' Dyo Naiman Ssuma, the summer residence of the second Pekin Khutukhtu, contains 108 temples and a famous manufactory of idols. Many other abodes of lamas are scarcely inferior to those we have mentioned. The desert of Gobi contains many such establishments. Sungaria contains numerous ruins of Lamaism, on the Irtish and elsewhere, among which those of Ablai-Kut, near Usk- Kamenogorsk, are most renowned, because the first fragments of the holy canon were brought thence to Europe about 1750. The Torguts have built many sacred places since their return from the west. A few lamas were found among the Buryats (in Russia), near Lake Baikal, about 160 years ago, as missionaries from Urga. Now almost all of them south of the lake are Lamao-Shamanites, and have wooden temples. The Calmucks between the Don, Volga, and Ural are forbidden to maintain intercourse with the Delai, although they keep up a Lamaic worship in Shittini-urgas (church tents)."
Government. — "Since the restoration of the power of the Dalai by the emperor Khian-lung, all the decrees of government are issued in the name of each of the two high lamas, in their respective dioceses; but the real power is in the hands of the emperor, whose two Tatchin (great mandarins) reside at Lassa, with Chinese garrisons in the neighborhood, to watch both the ocean of holiness and the Tsang-vang, who, as vicar of the emperor, administers the affairs of the country. The lower offices only are hereditary. The annual tribute of the two high lamas is carried every third year to Pekin by caravans."
Literature. — See, besides the sacred books mentioned above, and the works cited under BUDDHISM SEE BUDDHISM , A. Cunningham, Ladak, Physical, Statistical, and Historical (London, 1854); Csoma de Koros, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 1:121-269; 2:57, 201, 388; 3:57; 4:142; 5:264, 384; 7 (part 1), 142; 20:553-585; Hardwick, Christ and other Masters, 2:88 sq.; Hue et Gabet, Souvenirs d'un Voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, et la Chine (Paris, 1852); Hodgson, Illustrations of the Literature and Religion of the Buddhists (Serampore, 1841); Koppen (Fr.), Die Lamaische Hierarchie, etc. (Berlin, 1859);
Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet (Lpzg. and London, 1863). SEE THIBET. (J.T.G.)