Krug, Wilhelm Traugott
Krug, Wilhelm Traugott a distinguished German philosopher and writer, was born at Radis, near Grafenhainchen, Prussia. June 22, 1770. He studied at the school of Pforta and the University of Wittenberg, where he was appointed adjunct professor in 1794. In the year following he published Ueber die Perfectibilitait der geo enbarten Religion (Jena and Lpz. 1795, 8vo), a work which was so rationalistic in character that it barred his way for further promotion. In 1801 he became professor of philosophy in the University of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and here he wrote his principal work, Fundamental philosophie (Zillichau and Freistadt, 1803; 3d ed. Lpz. 1827), which became very popular throughout Germany. Guided by Kant's criticism, Krug professed a system which, under the name of "transcendental synthetism," aimed to reconcile idealism and realism. "According to Krug, the act of philosophizing is thought entering into itself, to know and understand itself, and by this means to be at peace with itself. The following are his principal points:
1. In relation with the starting-point, or first principle of knowledge: the Ego is the real principle, inasmuch as it takes itself as the object of its knowledge (the philosophizing subject). It is from it that proceed, as from an active principle, the ideal principles, which are essentially different from the real principles, or, in other words, the material and formal principles of philosophical knowledge. The material principles are the facts of consciousness grasped in conceptions, which are all comprehended in the proposition, I tnam acn gent. 'The formal principles (determining the form of knowledge) are the laws of my activity; they are as multifarious as activity itself: the first of these laws is, Seek for harmony in thy activity.
2. How far ought these researches to be carried (the absolute limit of philosophy)? The consciousness is a synthesis of being, or Esse, and knowing, or Science (das Seyn und das Wissen), in the aego. Every consciousness is thus circumstanced, which implies that being and knowing are united in us a priori. This transcendental synthesis is therefore the original and inappreciable fact which forms the absolute limit of philosophizing. Since being and knowing (Seyn und Wis.sen), united together in the consciousness, cannot be deduced the one from the other, their union is completely primitive.
3. What are the different forms of activity? The primitive activity of the Ego is either immanent (speculative) or transitory (practical). Sensibility, intelligence, and reason are its different potencies. Philosophy, regarded as the science of the primitive legislation of the human mind in all its activity, is therefore divided into a speculative part and a practical part. The first part is subdivided into formal doctrine (logic) and material doctrine (metaphysics and aesthetics), inasmuch as the one regards the matter of thought per se, and the other (aesthetics) considers it in relation with sentiment. The latter part is likewise subdivided into formal doctrine (the science of right and law) and material doctrine (morals and religion). Each of these considers the legislation of the human mind under a different aspect" (Tenneman, Malnual of Philos. § 421). After the death of Kant, Krug was called to K.inigsberg to succeed his great master as professor of logic and metaphysics. He subsequently filled also Kraus's place as professor of practical philosophy. In 1809 he became professor of philosophy at Leipzic, a position which he retained until 1831, when he was pensioned. He died at Leipzic Jan. 13, 1812. Krug's other works are Versuch einer systesmatischen Encyklopadie d. Wisselschaften (Wittenb. 1796-97, 2 vols.; 3.1 vol. Lpz. 1804):-Ueber d. Verhaltniss d. kritischen Philosophie z. moralischen, politischen, u. religison Cultur d. Menschen (Jena, 1798): — Versuch einer systematischen Encyklopdaie d. schonen Kiinste (Lpzc. 1802): — Philosophie el. Ehe (Lpzc. 1800): — Briefe uber d. neusten Idealismnus (Lpzc. 1801): - Entwurfieines neuen Organon d. Philosophie (Meiss. and Lubben, 1801): -Systew del. theoretischene Philosophie (Konigsb. 1806 -10; four eds. since): — Gesch. d. Philosophie alter Zeit (Lpz. 1815, 1826): — System d. praktischenz Philosophie (Konigsb. 1817-19, 2 vols.; 2d ed. 1830-38) : — Handbuch d. Philosophie
u. philosophischen Literatur (Lpzc. 1820-21, 2 vols.; 3d ed. 1829) — Versuch einer neuen Theorie el. Gefii/l u. d. sogenannten Gefulsvernmgens (Konigsberg, 1823): — Pisteologie oder Glaube, Aberglaube u. Unaglaube (Lpzc. 1825):- Das Kirchenrecht nach Grunldstzen d. Vernunli, etc. (Lpzc. 1826): - Ally. HIandworterbuch d. philosophischen Wissenschaften (Lpzc. 1827-28, 4 vols.; 2d ed. 1832-34, 5 vols. 8vo): - Universal philosophische Vorlesul. gen (Neustadt, 1831); etc. His works have been collected and published under the title Gesammeelte Schriften (Braunschweig, 1830-34, 6 vols. 8vo). See Krug, Meine Lebensreise in sechs Stationen (Lpzc. 1826 and 1812) ; same, Leipziger Freuden u1. Lei len, etc. (Lpz. 1831); Morell, Hist. Mod. Philosophyl; Saiutes, Hist. of Rationalism, p. 138; Tennemann's Manual of Philosophy (by Morell), p. 465 sq.; Krug, Philosophisches Worterbuch, v (1), p. 617 sq.; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Gener. 27:240. (J. . Wy.)