I. The following are the Hebrew terms thus rendered in the English Bible:
1. מַשׁפָּחָה, mishpachah', usually rendered "family," answering to the Latin gens, except that it more distinctly includes the idea of original affinity or derivation from a common stock; it corresponds exactly with our word clan. It is used of the different tribes of the Canaanites (Ge 10:18); of the subdivisions of the Hebrew people (Ex 6:14; Nu 1:20, etc.); sometimes for one of the tribes (Jos 7:17; Jg 13:2, etc.), and in the later books tropically for a people or nation (Jer 8:3; Jer 25:9; Eze 20:32; Mic 2:3). It is translated kindred in the A.V. at Ge 24:41; Jos 6:23; Ru 2:3; Job 32:2-in all of which it refers to relationship by consanguinity, more or less remote.
2. מוֹלֶדֶת, mnole'deth, conveys primarily the idea of birth, nativity; hence a person born, a child (Ge 28:9; Le 18:9,11), and persons of the same family or lineage (Ge 12:1; Ge 24:4; Ge 31:3; Ge 43:7; Nu 10:30; Es 2:10; Es 8:6-in all which passages it is translated kindred in the A.V.). In some of these instances, however, the kinship is only the remote one of common nationality arising out of common descent.
3. מוֹדִעִת, moda'ath, literally knowledge, is used to express blood- relationship in Ru 3:2; compare מוֹדִע (Ru 2:1; Pr 7:4).
4. גּאֻלָּה, geillah', redemption, a word which properly designated such near relationship by blood as would confer the rights and obligations of a גֹּאֵל, or kinsman, avenger, and redeemer, on the party. SEE GOEL. As commonly used, however, it denotes either the thing redeemed (Ru 4:6), or the right of redeeming (Le 25:29, etc.), or the redemption price (Le 25:26, etc.). The only passage in which it is translated kindred in the A.V. is Eze 11:15. Hengstenberg (Christol. 3:9, E. 1'.) and Havernick (Conmment. ad loc.) contend that גאלה is to be taken here not in the sense of relationship, but in that of suretyship or substitutionary action, and they would translate the passage, " Thy brethren are the men of thy suretyship," or "redemption," i.e. the men whom it lies on them to redeem or act for. The Sept. seems to have read גּוֹלָתֶךָ, for they give αἰχμαλωσαίς here.
5. אָח, ach, which properly means brother, occurs only once with the rendering kindred in the A. V., in 1Ch 12:29. It is frequently used elsewhere in a wide sense, and may be understood of nearly all collateral relationships whatever, whether by consanguinity, affinity, or simple association. From this comes אִחֲוָה, brotherhood (Zec 11:14).
Besides these terms, the Hebrews expressed consanguinity by such words and phrases as בָּשָׂר, flesh (Ge 37:27; Isa 58:7); עִצמַי וּבשָׂרַי, my bone and my flesh (Ge 29:14; Jg 9:2; 2Sa 5:1, etc.); שׁאֵר, flesh (Le 18:12-13, etc.; Nu 27:23), with שִׁאֲרָה, coll. kinswomen (Le 18:17); and בֵּשָׂרוֹ שׁאֵר, flesh of his flesh (A. V. near of kin, Le 18:6; nigh of kin, 25:49).
II. In the New Test. we have the following Greek words thus rendered: γένος, the most general and frequent term, our kin, i.e. birth relationship, with its derivative συγγένεια, co-relationship; πατριά (Ac 3:25), descent in a direct line ("lineage," Lu 2:4; "family," Eph 3:15); and φυλή (Re 5:9; Re 7:9; Re 11:9; Re 13:7; Re 14:6), a tribe (as elsewhere rendered).
In addition to these Heb. and Greek words, various others of cogilate derivation or similar signification are frequently rendered " kin,"" "kinship," etc.
III. The terms expressive of immediate relationship are FATHER, MOTHER, BROTHER, SISTER, SON, DAUGHTER; those expressing collateral consanguinity are UNCLE, AUNT, NEPHEW (niece does not occur in the A.V., but brother's or sister's daughter), COUSIN; those expressive of affinity are FATHER-IN-LAW, MOTHER-IN-LAW, SON- IN- LAW, DAUGHTER-IN-LAW, BROTHER-IN-LAW, SISTER-IN- LAW. See each of these in their place.
IV. The relations of kindred, expressed by few words, and imperfectly defined in the earliest ages, acquired in course of time greater significance and wider influence. The full list of relatives either by consanguinity, i.e. as arising from a common ancestor, or by affinity, i.e. as created by marriage, may be seen detailed in the Corpus Juris Civ. Digest. lib. 38:tit. 10, de Gradibus; see also Corp. Jur. Canon. Decr. ii, c. 35:9, 5. SEE AFFINITY.
The domestic and economical questions arising out of kindred may be classed under the three heads of MARRIAGE, INHERITANCE, and BLOOD-REVENGE, and the reader is referred to the articles on those subjects for information thereon. It is clear that the tendency of the Mosaic law was to increase the restrictions on marriage, by defining more precisely the relations created by it, as is shown by the cases of Abraham and Moses.
For information on the general subject of kindred and its obligations, see Selden, De Jure Naturali, lib. v; Michaelis, Laws of Moses, ed. Smith, ii, 36; Knobel on Leviticus 18; Philo, De Spec. Leg. 3:3, 4, 5, vol. ii . 301- 304, ed.Mangey; Burckhardt, Arab Tribes, i, 150; Keil, Bibl. Arch. ii, 50, § 106, 107. SEE KINSMAN.