Khosru II, grandson of the preceding, surnamed PURVIZ (the Generous), was raised to the throne in 590. In the first years of the 7th century he opened war upon the Romans, and for seventeen years inflicted upon the Byzantine Empire a series of disasters the like of which they had never before experienced. Syria was conquered in 611, Palestine in 614, Egypt and Asia Minor in 616, and the last bulwark of the capital, Chalcedon, fell soon after. " The Roman Empire was on the brink of ruin; the capture of Alexandria had deprived the inhabitants of Constantinople of their usual supply of corn, the northern barbarians ravaged the European provinces, while another powerful Persian army, already advanced as far as the Bosporus, was making preparations for the siege of the imperial city. Peace was earnestly solicited by Heraclius, who had succeeded Phocas in 610, but without success. Khosru, however, did not cross the Bosporus, and at length, in 621, he dictated the terms of an ignominious peace to the emperor. But Heraclius, who had hitherto made very few efforts for the defence of his dominions, rejected these terms, and in a series of brilliant campaigns (A.D. 622-627) recovered all the provinces he had lost, repeatedly defeated the Persian monarch, and advanced in his victorious career as far as the Tigris. Khosru was murdered in the spring of the following year, 628, by his son Siroes." SEE PERSIA.