Julius III, Pope
Julius III, Pope (Gian-Maria del Monte, CARDINAL GIOCCI), succeeded Paul III in 1550. He was born at Monte San Sovino, near Arezzo, Sept. 10, 1487. He first studied law, but, securing the protection of his uncle, cardinal Antonio del Monte, he entered the Church, and soon became archbishop, and was intrusted with the administration of different dioceses. Paul III made him cardinal of St. Vitale and bishop of St. Palestrina, and sent him as one of the four legates to open the Council of Trent (q.v.). After his elevation to the pontificate he reopened (1551) the sittings of the Council of Trent, suspended under his predecessor (1549). Closely allied to Charles V, he spent his reign in quarrelling with France, Venice, and also with Ferdinand, king of the Romans, and brother of Charles V. His name is linked with English history by his efforts to organize with Mary the reunion of England with Rome. SEE POPE. Julius III died in March 1555, leaving behind him a very indifferent character, marked by incapacity and misconduct. While a cardinal he was remarkable for his firmness and activity, but after becoming pope he gave himself up to luxury and pleasure, and went so far in his disregard of all consistency as to give the cardinal's place left vacant by his election to one of his servants, whose only merit consisted in having taken care of his pet monkey. See Ciacconi, Vitoe Pontif.; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Générale, 27, 165; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 7, 158; Ranke, Papacy, 1, 201 sq.; Bower, Hist. of the Popes, 7, 458 sq.