Johlsohn, J Joseph

Johlsohn, J. Joseph, a Jewish scholar of some renown, was born in Fulda in 1777. Being the son of a rabbi, he was instructed from his early youth in the language and literature of the Old Testament, in which he became a great adept. When quite young, he left his native place and went to Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he engaged in private tuition, pursuing himself, at the same time, an extended course of study in languages and metaphysics. Later he removed to Kreuznach, and became professor of Hebrew, etc., in a public academy, but was called back in 1813 by the government to the professorial chair of Hebrew and religion in the Jewish academy at Frankfort, known as the "Philantropin." Johlsohn's activity in this once renowned capital of the German empire fell in a time marked in Jewish annals as a period of agitation. The reform movement, SEE JUDAISM, which shortly after developed more fully, was just budding, and he, partaking more or less of that spirit, earnestly labored for the introduction of sermons in the vernacular, hours of devotion on the Christian Sabbath, etc. To further encourage this awakening of a religious spirit, especially in the young, he published

(1) a hymn book entitled Gesangbuch für Israeliten (Frkf. 1816, and often, 8vo): — also

(2) a valuable work on the fundamentals of the Jewish religion, entitled שרשי חֹדת, with an Appendix describing the manners and customs of the Hebrews (Frkf. 2d ed. 1819): —

(3) A Chronological History of the Bible, in Heb., with the moral sayings of the Scriptures, seven Psalms with Kimchi's Commentary, a Hebrew Chrestomathy with notes, and a glossary called תולדות אבות (1820; 2d ed. 1837): —

(4) The Pentateuch translated into German, with Annotations (1831): —

(5) The sacred Scriptures of the Jews, translated into German, with Annotations (of which only 2 vols. were ever published), vol. 2 containing Joshua, Samuel, and Kings (1836): —

(6) A Hebrew Grammar for Schools, entitled יסודי הלשין forming a second part to the new ed. of the Chrestomathy (1838): —

(7) A Hebrew Lexicon, giving also the synonyms, with an appendix containing an explanation of the abbreviations used in the Rabbinical writings, entitled ערמִלים (1840): —

(8) A historical and dogmatic Treatise on Circumcision (1843). Johlsohn died in Frankfort June 13, 1851. See Stern, Gesch. des Judenthums, p. 181 sq.; Allgem. Zeitung des Judenth. 1851, p. 356; Kayserling (Dr. M.), Biblioth. jüd. Kanzelredner (Berlin, 1870), p. 382; Stein, Israelit. Volkslehrer, 1, 140 sq.; Fürst, Bibl. Jud. 2, 99 sq.; Kitto, s.v.

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