Jesus Christ, Orders of

Jesus Christ, Orders of.

These were formed of temporal knights in the countries paying homage to the Roman see for the protection and promotion of the Roman Catholic religion.

1. Such was the order founded under this name, also known as the Order of Dobrin, in 1213, by duke Conrad of Masovia and Kujavia, Poland. They followed the rules of St. Augustine as a religious society, and their aim was to counteract the influences of the heathenish Prussians, their western neighbors. Their stronghold was the burgh of Dobrin, in Prussia. The insignia and dress of the order were a white mantle, on the left breast a red sword, and a five-pointed red star. The order was merged into the German order in 1234.

2. In Spain such an order was founded in 1216 by Dominicus. The knights bound themselves to practice monastic duties, and to battle in defense of their Church. It was approved by pope Honorius III, and confirmed, under various names, by different popes. When Pius V founded the congregation of St. Peter the Martyr at Rome, composed of the cardinals, grand inquisitors, and other dignitaries of the Holy Office, this order was merged into it. In 1815 king Ferdinand VII commanded the members of the Inquisition to wear the insignia of the order.

3. Another of like name was started in Portugal in 1317 by king Dionysius of Portugal, in concert with pope John XXII, and was composed of the knights of the former Knights Templars (q.v.). SEE CHRIST, ORDER OF, vol. 2, p. 268.

4. Another of this class was the Order of Jesus and Mary, and was founded in 1643 by Eudes (q.v.). Their insignia are a gilded Maltese cross, enameled with blue, surrounded by a golden border, and in the center of which is the name of Jesus: it is worn at the buttonhole. The full-dress cloak is of white camlet, with the cross of the order in blue satin, with gilt border, and name on the left side. The order consists of a grand master, thirty-three commanders (in commemoration of the years of Christ's life), knights of uprightness and of grace, chaplains, and serving brethren. Sec Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 6, 615; Pierer, Unv. Lex. 8, 809.

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