Introduction, Biblical

Introduction, Biblical

is now the technical designation for works which aim to furnish a general view of such subjects and questions as are preliminary to a proper exposition of the sacred books, the corresponding branch of Biblical science being often styled "ISAGOGICS," in a strict sense. — The word "introduction" being of rather vague signification, there was also formerly no definite idea attached to the expression "Biblical Introduction." In works on this' subject (as-in Home's Introduction) might be found contents belonging to geography, antiquities, interpretation, natural

history, and other branches of knowledge. Even the usual contents of Biblical introductions were so unconnected that Schleiermacher, in his Kurze Darstellung des Theologischen Studiums, justly calls it ein Mancherlei; that is, a farrago or omnium-gatherum. Biblical introduction was usually described as consisting o' the various branches of preparatory knowledge requisite for viewing and treating the Bible correctly. It was distinguished from Biblical history and archaeology by being less intimately connected with what is usually called history. It comprised treatises on the origin of the Bible, on the original languages, on the translations, and on the history of the sacred text, and was divided into general and special introduction. An endeavor to remove this vagueness by furnishing a firm definition of Biblical introduction was made by Dr. Credner (in his Einleitung, noticed below). He defined Biblical introduction to be the history of the Bible, and divided it into the following parts: 1. The history of the separate Biblical books; 2, the history of the collection of these books, or of the canon; 3, the history of the spread of these books, or of the translations of it; 4, the history of the preservation-of the text; 5, the history of the interpretation of it. The same historical idea has been advocated by Havernick (in his Einleit.), and more particularly by Hupfeld (Begrif' u. Methode der bibl. Einl. 1844). This view, however, has not generally been acquiesced in by Biblical scholars, being regarded as too limited and special a treatment, inasmuch as the end in view is to furnish a solution of such questions as arise upon the Bible as a book, yet excluding such preparatory sciences in general as philology, archaeology, and exegesis, the first two of which rather relate to all ancient writings, and the last to passages in detail. By common consent, treatises on Biblical introduction have now usually come to embrace the field covered by the articles on the several books as given in this Cyclopaedia, and the topics legitimately included in this department of Biblical science may briefly be summed up under the following heads, which may, however, sometimes require to be differently arranged, or even combined: 1, Authorship; 2, date; 3, place; 4, inspiration; 5, contents; 6, style; 7, peculiar difficulties-of the several books, with the literature and commentaries appended. In this way the old division of general and special introduction is preserved only so far that some treatises are on all the books of the Old or New Testament in order, while others take up a single book only the latter usually as prolegomena to a separate commentary; and the wider topics formerly discussed are relegated to their appropriate and separate spheres, e.g. in addition to Archaeology (including Geography, Chronology, History, and Antiquities proper), Lexicology (including radical and comparative philology, and synonyms), and Grammar (including all the peculiarities of Hebraistic and Hellenistic phraseology, poetical modes of expression, rhetorical traits. etc.) — the following more especially: the Canon, Criticism, Inspiration, and Interpretation (q.v. severally). With' these prefatory distinctions, we proceed to give a sketch of the historical development of this department of Biblical Science, with some criticisms upon the several works in which it has been evolved. In these remarks we especially include formal treatises upon the subject at large, besides those found in commentaries; see also Bleek's Introd. to the O.T. (Lond. 1869), 1, 5 sq.

The Greek word εἰσαγωγή, in the sense of an introduction to a science, occurs only in later Greek, and was first used, to denote an introduction to the right understanding of the Bible, by Adrian, a Greek who probably lived in the 5th century after Christ. Α᾿δριάνου είσαγωγὴ τῆς γραφῆς is a small book, the object of which is to assist readers who are unacquainted with Biblical phraseology in rightly understanding peculiar words and expressions. It was first edited by David Hoschel, under the title of Adriani Isagoge in Sacram Scripturam Grcece cumi Scholiis (Augustse Vindobonae, 1602, 4to), and was reprinted in the Critici Sacri (London ed. vol. 8; Frankfort edit. vol. 6). Before Adrian, the want of similar works had already been felt, and books of a corresponding tendency were in circulation, but they did not bear the title of εἰσαγωγή. Melito of Sardis, who lived in the latter half of the 2nd century, wrote a book under the title ἡ κλεῖς, being a key both to the Old and to the New Testament. The so- called Λέξεις, which were written at a later period, are books of a similar description. Some of these Λέξεις have been printed, in Matthew's Novum Testamentum Graeca, and in Boissonade's Anecdota Graeca (vol. 3, Paris, 1831). These are merely linguistic introductions; but there was soon felt the want of works which might solve other questions, such as, for instance, what are the principles which should guide us in Biblical interpretation? The Donatist Ticonius wrote, about the year 380, Regulae ad investigandanm et inveniendam Intelligentiam Scripturarum Septem. St. Augustine, in his work De Doctrin Christiana (3, 302), says concerning these seven rules that the author's intention was by means of them to open the secret sense of Holy Writ, "as if by a key." There arose also a question concerning the extent of Holy Writ-that is to say, what belonged, and what did not belong to Holy Writ; and also respecting the contents of the separate Biblical books, and the order in which they should follow each other, etc. About A.D. 550, Cassiodorus wrote his Imstitutiones Divinae. He mentions in this work, under the name of Introductores Divinae Scripturae, five authors who had been engaged in Biblical investigations, and in his tenth chapter speaks of them thus: "Let us eagerly return to the guides to Holy Writ; that is to say, to the Donatist Ticonius, to St. Augustine on Christian doctrine, to Adrian, Eucherius, and Junillus, whom I have sedulously collected, in order that works of a similar purport might be combined in one volume." Henceforward the title Introductio in Scripturam Sacrum was established, and remained current for all works in which were solved questions introductory to the study of the Bible. In the Western or Latin Church, during a thousand years, scarcely any addition was made to the collection of Cassiodorus, while in the Eastern or Greek Church only two works written during this long period deserve to be mentioned, both bearing the title Σύνοψις τῆς θεῖας γραφῆς. One of these works is falsely ascribed to Athanasius, and the other as falsely to Chrysostom.

The Dominican friar Santes Pagninus, with the intention of reviewing the Biblical knowledge of Jerome and St. Augustine, published his Isagoge ad Sacras Literas, liber unicus (Coloniae, 1540, fol.), a work which, considering the time of its appearance, was a great step in advance.

The work of the Dominican friar Sixtus of Sienna, Bibliotheca Sancta ex precipuis Catholice Ecclesice auctoribus collecta, et in octo libros digesta (Venetiis, 1566; frequently reprinted), is of greater importance, although it is manifestly written under the influence of the Inquisition, which had just been restored, and is perceptibly shackled by the decrees of the Council of Trent; but Sixtus furnished also a list of books to be used by a true Catholic Christian for the right understanding of Holy Writ, as well as the principles which should guide a Roman Catholic in criticism and interpretation. The decrees of the Council of Trent prevented the Roman Catholics from moving freely in the field of Biblical investigation, while the Protestants zealously carried out their researches in various directions. The Illyrian, Matthias Flacius, in his Clavis Scripturea Sacrce, seu de Sermone Sacrarum Literarums (Basle, 1567, in folio), furnished an excellent work on Biblical Hermeneutics; but it was surpassed by the Prolegomena of Brian Walton, which belong to his celebrated Biblia Sacra Polyglotta (Lond. 1657, six vols. fol.). These Prolegomena contain much that will always be accounted valuable and necessary for the true criticism of the sacred text. They have been published separately, with notes, by archdeacon Wrangham (1528, 2 vols. 8vo). Thus we have seen that excellent works were produced on isolated portions of Biblical introduction, but they were not equaled in merit by the works in which it was attempted to furnish a whole system of Biblical introduction. The following Biblical introductions are among the 'best of those which were published about that period: Rivetus (1627); Michaelis Waltheri Oficina Biblica noviter adaperta, etc. (Lipsiae, first published in 1636); Abraham Calovii Criticus Sacer Biblicus, etc. (Vitembergae, 1643); Hottinger, Thesaur. Philologicus, seu Clavis Script. Sac. (Tiguri, 1649); Heidegger. Enchiridion Biblicum iepoyivl7ovtciv (Tiguri, 1681); Leusden, a Dutchman, published a work entitled Philologus Hebraeus, etc. (Utrecht, 1656); and Phiololgus Hebr. — Graecis Generalis (Utrecht, 1670); Pfeiffer (Ultraj. 1704); Van Til (1720-22); Du Pin (1701); Calmet (1720); Moldenhauer (1744); Bbrner (1753); Goldhagen (1765-8); Wagner (1795). Most of these works have frequently been reprinted.

The dogmatical zeal of the Protestants was greatly excited by the work of Louis Capelle, a reformed divine and learned professor at Saumur, which appeared under the title of Ludovici Cappelli Critica Sacra; sire de vaiis quce in veteris Testamenti libris occurrunt lectionibus libri sex (Parisiis, 1650). A learned Roman Catholic and priest of the Oratory, Richard Simon, rightly perceived, from the dogmatical bile stirred up by Capelle, that Biblical criticism was the most effective weapon to be employed against the Protestantism which had grown cold and stiff in dogmatics. He therefore devoted his critical knowledge of the Bible to the service of the Roman Catholic Church, and endeavored to inflict a deathblow upon Protestantism. The result, however, was the production of Simon's excellent work on Biblical criticism, which became the basis on which the science of Biblical introduction was raised. Simon was the first who correctly, separated the criticism of the Old Testament from that of the New. His works on Biblical introduction appeared under the following titles: Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament (Paris, 1678). This work was inaccurately reprinted at Amsterdam by Elzevir in 1679, and subsequently in many other bad piratical editions. Among these the most complete was that printed, together with several polemical treatises occasioned by this work, at Rotterdam, in 1685, 4to:- Histoire Critique du Texte du Nouveau Testament (Rotterdam, 1689): — Histoire Critique des Versions du Nouveau Testament (Rotterdam, 1690):- Histoire Critique des principaux

Commentateurs du Nouveau Testament (Rotterd. 1693). By these excellent critical works Simon established a claim upon the gratitude of all real friends of truth; but lie was thanked by none of the prevailing parties in the Christian Church. The Protestants saw in Simon only an enemy of their Church, not the thorough investigator and friend of truth. To the Roman Catholics, on the other hand, Simon's works appeared to be destructive, because they demonstrated their ecclesiastical decrees to be arbitrary and unhistorical. The Histoire Critique du Nieux Testament was suppressed by the Roman Catholics in Paris immediately after its publication, and in Protestant countries, also, it was forbidden to be reprinted. Nevertheless, the linguistic and truly scientific researches of Pocock; the Oriental school in the Netherlands; the unsurpassed work of Humphry Hody, De Bibliorunm Textibus Originalibus Versionibus, etc. (Oxoniae, 1705, folio); the excellent criticism of Mill, in his Novum Testamentums Grmcumn cum Lectionibus Variantibus (Oxoniae, 1707, folio), which was soon followed by Wetstein's Novsum Testamnentum Graecums editionis receptum, cum Lectionibus Variantibus (Amstelodami, 175152, folio), and by which even Bengel was convinced, in spite of his ecclesiastical orthodoxy (comp. Bengelii Apparatus Criticus Novi Testamensti, p. 634 sq.); the Biblical works by H. Michaeli, especially his Biblia Hebraica ex a anuscriptis et impressis Codicibus (Halae, 1720), and Kennicott's Vetus Testamentum Hebraicum cum varisis Lectionibus (Oxon. 1776), and the revival of classical philology-all this gradually led to results which coincided with Simon's criticism, and showed the enormous difference between historical truth and the arbitrary ecclesiastical opinions which were still prevalent in the works on Biblical introduction by Pritius, Blackwall, Carpiov, Van Til, Moldenhauer, and others. J. D. Michaelis mildly endeavored to reconcile the Church with historical truth, but has been rewarded by the anathemas of the ecclesiastical party, who have pronounced him a heretic. By their ecclesiastical persecutors, Richard Simon was falsely described to be a disciple of the pantheistical Spinoza, and Michaelis as a follower of both Simon and Spinoza. However, the mediating endeavors of Michaelis gradually prevailed. His Einleitung in die Gottlichen Schriften des Neuen Bundes (Gottingen, 1750, 8vo) was greatly improved in later editions, and the fourth (1788, 2 vols. 4to) was translated and essentially augmented by Herbert Marsh, afterwards bishop of Peterborough, under the title Introduction to the New Testament, etc. (Cambridge, 17911801, 4 vols. 8vo). Michaelis commenced also an introduction to the Old Testament, under the title Einleitung in die Gottlichen Schriften des AIten Bundes

(Hamburg, 1787). Ed. Harwood's New Introduction to the Study and Knowledge of the New Testament (London, 1767-71; translated into German by Schulz, Halle, 1770-73, 3 vols.) contains so many heterogeneous materials that it scarcely belongs to the science of introduction.

The study of New-Testament introduction was in Germany especially promoted also by J. S. Semler, who died at Halle in 1791. It was by Semler's influence that the critical works of Richard Simon were translated into German, and the works of Wetstein re-edited and circulated. The original works of Semler on Biblical introduction are his Apparatuts ad liberalerum Novi Testamensti Interpretationemn (Halae, 1767), and his Abhanedlung vonzfreier Untersuchunyg des Canons (Halle, 1771-5, 4 vols.). Semler's school produced J. J. Griesbach, who died at Jena in 1812. Griesbach's labors in correcting the text of the New Testament are of great value. K. A. Halnlein published a work called Handbuch der Einleitlung in die Schriften des Neuen Testasmentes (Erlangen, 1794-1802, 2 vols.), in which he followed the university lectures of Griesbach. A second edition of this work appeared in 1801-9, 3 vols. This introduction contains excellent materials, but is wanting in decisive historical criticism.

J. G. Eichhorn, who died at Göttingen in 1827, was formed in the school of Michaelis at Göttingen, and was inspired by Herder's poetical views of the East in general, and of the literature of the ancient Hebrews in particular. Eichhorn commenced his Introduction when the times were inclined to give up the Bible altogether as a production of priest craft inapplicable to the present period. He endeavored to bring the contents of the Bible into harmony with modern modes of thinking, to explain, and to recommend them. He sought, by means of hypotheses, to furnish a clew to their origin, without sufficiently regarding strict historical criticism. Eichhorn's Einleitung in das Alte Testament was first published at Leipsic in 1780-83, in three volumes. The fifth edition was published at Göttingen, 1820-24, in five volumes. His Einleitung in das Neue Testament was first published at Leipzig (1804-27, 5 vols.). The earlier volumes have been republished. The external treatment of the materials, the style, aim, and many separate portions of both works, are masterly 'and excellent; but, with regard to linguistic and historical research, they are feeble, and overwhelmed with hypotheses.

Leonhardt Bertholdt was a very diligent but uncritical compiler. He made a considerable step backwards in the science of introduction. not only by reuniting the Old and Now Testament into one whole, but by even intermixing the separate writings with each other, in his work entitled Historisch-kritische Einleitung in sammtliche kanonische und apocryphische Schriften des Alten und Neuen Testamentes (Erlang. 1812- 19, 6 vols.).

Augusti's Grundriss einer hist. — krit. Einleit. ins A. T. (Lpz. 1806, 1827) contains little new or original.

The Isagoge Historico-critica in Libros Novi Faederis Sacros (Jene, 1830) of H. A. Schott is more distinguished by diligence than by penetration.

The Lehrbuch der Historisch-kritischen Einleitung in die Bibel A. und N.T. Berlin (pt. 1, O.T. 1817, and often since; pt. 2, 1826, and later), by W.M. L. de Wette, is distinguished by brevity, precision, critical penetration, and in some parts by completeness. This book contains an excellent survey of the various opinions prevalent in the sphere of Biblical introduction, interspersed with original discussions. Almost every author on Biblical criticism will find that De Wette has made use of his labors; but in the purely historical portion the book is feeble, and indicates that the author did not go to the first sources, but adopted the opinions of others; consequently the work has no internal harmony. An English translation of this work, with additions by the translator, Theodore Parker, has been published in this country (Boston, 1850). A new (the 8th), thoroughly revised edition of the German, not only embodying all the later results of exegetical researches, but also modifying many of the views of De Wette, has recently been published by Prof. E. Schrader (Berl. vol. 1 [O.T.], 1869).

K. A. Credner embodied the results of his method (see above) of the critical examination of the books of the New Testament in his work Dass Neue Testament nach seinerm Zwceck, Usrspruncge und Inhalt (Giessen, 1841-3, 2 vols.). His views are the basis of Reus's Geschichte der Heiliqen Schriften des Neuen Testamentes (Hallec 1842; 3rd ed. 1860).

The critical investigation which prevailed in Germany after the days of Michaelis has of late been opposed by a mode of treating Biblical introduction not so much in the spirit of a free search after truth as in an apologetical and polemical style. This course, however, has not enriched Biblical science. To this class of books belong a number of monographs, or treatises on separate subjects; also the Handb. der Historisch-kritischen Einleitung in das Alte Testament of H. A. C. Havernick (Erlangen, 1837- 49, 2 pts. in 3 vols.; 2nd ed. 1854-6, by Keil, who also edited pt. 1 of the first ed.), of which the General Introduction and the Introduction to the Pentateuch have been translated into English (Edinb. 1850, 1852); also H. E. E. Guericke's Einleitunz in das Neue Testament (Halle, 1828), in which too frequently an anathema against heretics serves as a substitute for demonstration. The apologetical tendency prevails in the work of G. Hamilton, entitled A General Introduction to the Study of the Hebrew Scriptures, etc. (Dublin, 1814); in Thomas Hartwell Horne's Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, etc. (Lond. 1818, 4 vols.; the 10th ed. of this work was an entirely new production, and the best hitherto produced in English, in 4 vols. 8vo, 1856, vol. 2 on the. O.T. by Dr. S. Davidson [since displaced by one by Mr. Ayre], and vol. 4 on the N.T. by Dr. S. P. Tregelles); and in J. Cook's Inquiry into the Books of the New Testament (Edinburgh, 1824).

The Roman Catholics also have, in modern times, written on Biblical introduction, although the unchangeable decrees of the Council of Trent hinder all free, critical, and scientific treatment of the subject. The Roman Catholics can treat Biblical introduction only in a polemical and apologetical manner, and are obliged to keep up the attention of their readers by-introducing learned archaeological researches, which conceal the want of free movement. This latter mode was adopted by J. Jahn (who died at Vienna in 1816) in his Einleitung in die gottlichen Bücher des alten Bundes (Vienna, 1793, 2 vols., and 1802, 3 vols.), and in his Introductio in Libros Sacros Veteris Testamenti in epitonewi redacta (Viennae, 1805). This work has been republished by F. Ackermann, in what are asserted to be the third and fourth editions, under the title of Introductio in Libros Sacros Veteris Testamenti, usibus academicis accommodata (Viennae, 1825 and 1839). But these so-called new editions are full of alterations and mutilations, which remove every free expression of Jahn, who belonged to the liberal period of the emperor Joseph. J. L. Hug's Einleitung in das Neue Testament (Stuttgart and Tübing. 1800, 2 vols.; 4th ed. 1847) surpasses Jahn's work in ability, and has obtained much credit among Protestants by its learned explanations, although these frequently swerve from the point in question. Hug's work has been translated into English by the Rev. D. G. Wait, LL.D.; but this translation is much surpassed by that of Fosdick, published in the United States, and enriched by the addenda of Moses Stuart. The polemical and apologetical style prevails in the work of J. G. Herbst, Ristorisch-kritische Einleitung. in die Schriften des Alten Testamentes (completed and edited after the death of the author by Welte, Carlsruhe, 1840); and in L'Introduction Historique et Critique aux Livres de l'Ancien et du Nouveau Testament, by J. B. Glaire (Paris, 1839, 4 vols.). The work of the excellent Feilmoser, who died in 1831, Einleitung in die Biicher des Neuen Bundes (2nd ed. Tübingen, 1830), forsakes the position of a true Roman Catholic, inasmuch as it is distinguished by a noble ingenuousness and candor. The same remark in a great measure applies to the still later work of Scholz, Einl. in l. heil. Schriften d. A. und N.T. (vol. 1 general introd. Cologne, 1845). Among the best Roman Catholic contributions to this branch of Biblical literature are the works of Reusch, Lehrb. der Einleitung in dos A.T. (Freib. 3rd ed. 1868), and Langen, Grundriss der Einleitung in das N.T. (Freib. 1868).

In Great Britain, besides the above works of Horne and Hamilton, we may especially name the following as introductory in their character. Collier's Sacred Interpreter (1746, 2 vols. 8vo) was one of the earliest publications of this kind. It went through several editions, and was translated into German in 1750. It relates both to the Old and New Testament, and is described by bishop Marsh as "a good popular preparation for the study of the holy Scriptures." Lardner's History of the Apostles and Evangelists (1756-57, 3 vols. 8vo) is described by the same critic as an admirable introduction to the New Testament. "It is a storehouse of literary information, collected with equal industry and fidelity." From this work, from the English translation of Michaelis's Introduction (1761), and from Dr. Owen's Observations on the Gospels (1764), Dr. Percy, bishop of Dromore, compiled a useful manual, called A Key to the New Testament, which has gone through many editions, and is much in request among the candidates for ordination in the Established Church. The Key to the Old Testament (1790), by Dr. Gray, afterwards bishop of Bristol, was written in imitation of Percy's compilation; but it is a much more elaborate performance than the Key to the New Testament. It is a compilation from a great variety of works, references to which are given at the foot of each page. Bishop Marsh speaks of it as "a very useful publication for students of divinity, who will find at one view what must otherwise be collected from many writers." It is now, however, almost entirely behind the times. Dr. Harwood's Introduction to the Study and Knowledge of the New

Testament (1767, 1771,2 vols. 8vo), although noteworthy in this connection, is not properly an introduction to the New Testament, in the usual and proper sense of the term. It does not describe the books of the New Testament, but is a collection of dissertations relative partly to the character of the sacred writers, Jewish history and customs, and to such parts of heathen antiquities as have reference to the New Testament. The first volume of bishop Tomline's Elements of Christian Theology contains an introduction both to the Old and to the New Testament, and has been published in a separate form. It is suited to its purpose as a manual for students in divinity; but the standard of present attainment cannot be very high if, as Marsh states, "it may be read with advantage by the most experienced divine." The latest and most important works in this department are the following: Hengstenberg, Beitrdye zur Einleitung ins A. B. (Berlin, 1831); Hertwig, Tabellen z. Einleitung ins N.T. [a useful compilation] (Berl. 1849; 3rd ed. 1865); Maier (Roman Catholic), Einleitung in d. Schriften des N.T. (Freib. 1852); Keil, Lehrbuch der Historisch Kritischen Einleitung ins Alte Test. (Frankf. and Erlang. 1853 [a highly judicious work in most respects]; translated in Clarke's Library, Edinb. 1870, 2 vols.); Davidson, Introd. to the O.T. [a different work from that contained in Home above, and strongly Rationalistic] (London. 1862-3,3 vols. 8vo); Davidson, Introd. to the N.T. [an excellent, though rather non-committal work] (Lond. 1848-50, 3 vols. 8vo; last edit. 1868 [more strongly inclining to Rationalism]); Scholten (decidedly Rationalistic), Hist. Krit. Einl. ins N.T. (Lpz. 1853, 1856); Bleek, Einleitung in d. A.T. (Berlin, 1860 [moderately Rationalistic]; translated into English, Lond. 1869, 2 vols. 8vo); Bleek, Einleit. in d. N.T. (Berl. 1862, 1865; translated into English, Edinburgh, 1870, 2 vols. 8vo); Weber, Kurzgef. Einl. in d. Schrifi. A. und N.T. (Nordl. 1867, 8vo). Less generally known are the following: Haneberg, Versuch e. Gesch. d. bibl. offebarung, als Einleitung ins A. und N.T. (Regensb. 1850); Prins, Handbook to de Kennis v. d. heil. Schriften ed. o.e. U. Verbonds (Rotterd. 1851-52, 2 vol,.); Bauer (G. L.), Entw. e. krit. Einl. in d. Schrift. d. A. T. (Nürnb. 1794, 1801, 1806); Ackermann, Introduct. in Libros Vet. Feed. (Vien. 1825); Schmidt, Hist. — krit. Einleitung ins N.T. (Giessen, 1804, 2 vols.); Schneckenburger, Beitr. z. Enl. ins NM T. (Stuttg. 1832); Neudecker, Lehrbuch d. hist. krit. Einleit. in N.T. (Lpz. 1840); Roman Catholic: Reithmayr, Einl. 1. d. kanonisch. Bich. (Regensb. 1852). For other works, see Walch, Biblictheca Theolog. 3:31 sq.; 4:196

sq.; Danz, Universal Worterb. s.v. Bibel; Darling, Cyclopcedia Bibliographica, 1, 11 sq.; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v. Einleitung; Lange's Commentary (American ed.), 1, 62; compare British and For. Evang. Review, October, 1861; Deutsche Zeitsch.f. christl. Wissensch. April, 1861; Revue Chret. 1869, p. 745; Hauck, Theol. Jahresber. 1868, 4:759. SEE SCRIPTURES, HOLY.

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