Humbert (by some improperly called HUBERT), a French cardinal, was born probably towards the close of the 10th century. He entered the order of the Benedictines at Moyen-le-Moutier in 1015. In 1049 pope Leo IX, who had been bishop of Toul, the diocese in which the monastery of Moyen-le- Moutier was situated, called Humbert to Rome, and he was first created archbishop of Sicily, and in 1051 cardinal bishop of Silva Candida. Humbert is believed to be the first Frenchman who received the cardinal's hat. He was intimately associated with the pope, was admitted to all his councils, and was the Roman ambassador to Constantinople to effect a union with the Eastern or Greek Church. Under pope Victor III he was made chancellor and librarian at the Vatican, which offices he continued to hold under the pontifical successors Etienne III, Nicolas II, and Alexander II. He was at the head of the party opposed to Berenger, and obliged him to make a confession of faith at the synod at Rome in 1059. He died about 1063. He wrote a number of works, among others a treatise against the Simonians (published by Martene in his Anecdota), and a narrative of his embassy to Constantinople. This narrative and two other polemical works against the Greek Church have been printed several times, especially in the

Annales Ecclesiastici of Baronius. All his writings have been collected and printed by Migne, vol. 143 (1853), p. 929-1278. — Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Géneralé, 25, 483; Migne, Encyclop. Theol. 31, 1092 sq.

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