(Giacomo Savelli), was pope from April 2, 1285, to April 3, 1287. He espoused the cause of Charles of Anjou against the Aragonese, who had occupied Sicily; and he even incited to a crusade against the latter, qualifying it as a "holy war." He distinguished himself greatly by his zeal for the preservation and augmentation of the privileges of the Church, and for the recovery of the Holy Land. He cleared the Papal States of the bands of robbers with which they were overrun, and imparted a new impulse to arts and sciences, which up to his time had been much neglected; among other improvements, he attempted to establish a course of Oriental languages at the University of Paris, but he did not succeed. During his brief pontificate he is said to have succeeded in enriching his family. Migne, Dict. Ecclesiastes; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Géneralé, 25, 91; Mosheim, Ch. Hist. 2, 301; Schröckh, Kirchengesch. 26, 511 sq.; Bower, History of the Popes, 6, 326 sq.; Milman, Latin Christianity, 6, 172; Riddle, Hist. of the
Papacy, 2, 235; Neander, Ch. Hist. 4, 65, 627; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchen- Lex. 5, 322; Aschbach, Kirchen-Lex. 3, 325.