Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm
Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm a German theologian was born Oct. 20, 1802, at Frondenberg, in Westphalia, and was prepared for the ministry under the instruction of his father, who was pastor at Frondenberg. Entering the University of Bonn, he gave himself earnestly to Oriental and philosophical studies, an early fruit of which appeared in his translation of Aristotle's Metaphysics (Bonn, 1824), and in an edition of the Moallakah of Amralkais (Bonn, 1823). In 1823 he went to Basle, where, under the influence of the Missionary Institute, he became earnestly interested in religion and theology. In 1824 he became privatdocent in theology at Berlin; in 1826, professor extraordinary; in 1828, ordinary professor; and in 1829, doctor of theology. For many years his organ was the Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, begun in 1827, an orthodox journal, which, during its active and often stormy career, has rendered great service against Rationalism, but has also been noted for its violent polemical spirit in favor of Lutheranism, and, of late, even of, Ritualism, as well as of absolutism in Church and State. He was, after 1848, a bitter opponent of the union of the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Prussia, so much desired by Frederick William III, and by Neander and other leading theologians, against whom Hengstenberg's severity of language was often inexcusable. His contributions to the Kirchenzeitung, during his forty-two years' connection with it, were enough to make many volumes; but he was, besides, a laborious writer, especially in exegetical theology. He died June 3, 1869. His principal works are Christologie des alten Testaments (Berlin, 2nd edit. 3 vols. 8vo, 1854-57; translated by Reuel Keith from 1st edit., N. York, 1836-39, 3 vols. 8vo; also transl. by Theo. Meyer from 2nd edit. Edinburgh, 4 vols. 8vo, 1863): — Beitrage zur Einleitung ins alte Test. (Berlin, 1831-39, 3 vols. 8vo): — Die Bücher Moses u. Egypten (Berlin, 1841, 8vo): — Conmmentar iiber die Psalmen (Berlin, 2nd edit. 1849-52, 4 vols. 8vo; translated by Fairbairn and Thompson, Edinburgh, 1857, 3 vols. 8vo): — Erlauterungen 2. d. Pentateuch, vol. 1. (Die Geschichte Bileams, etc.), transl. by Ryland, Edinb. 1858: — Oezebarung Johannis (2nd edit. Berlin, 1861-62, 2 vols. 8vo; transl by Fairbairn from 1st edit., Edinb. 1851, 2 vols. 8vo): — Das Evangelium d. Johannes erlutert (Berlin, 1861-2, 2 vols.; translated, Edinb. 1865,2 vols. 8vo): — Ezechielerklart: Ecclesiastes: — Das Hohelied Salomonis aucsgelegt (Berlin, 1853, 8vo). There are also the following additional translations from the Einleitung: Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch, by Ryland (Edinb. 1847, 2 vols. 8vo); Egypt and the Books of Moses, by Robbins (Edinburgh, 8vo; Andover, 1843); On the Genuineness of Daniel and Zechariah, bound with Ryland's translation of the History of Balaam (Edinb. 1858, 8vo); Comm. on Ecclesiastes, with Treatise on the Song of Solomon, Job, Isaiah, etc. (Philadelphia, 1860).