Hazarma'veth (Hebrew CHATSAR- MA'VET, חֲצִרמָוֶת, court of death; Sept. Σαρμώθ and Α᾿ραμώθ, Vulg. Asarmoth), the name of the third son of Joktan, or, rather, of a district of Arabia Felix settled by him (Ge 10:26; 1Ch 1:20); supposed to be preserved in the modern province of
Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean, and abounding in frankincense, myrrh, and aloe; but (as intimated in the ominous name) noted for the insalubrity of the climate (Abulfeda, Arabia, p. 45; Niebuhr, Beschrieb. der Arab. p. 283; Ritter, Erdk. 11, 3,609). It was known also to the classical writers (Χατραμωτεῖται, 16, 768; Χατραμμῖται or Χατραμωνῖται, PtoL 6:7, 25: Atramitae, Dimon. Perieq. 957; Χατραμωτίτης, Steph. Byz. p. 755). This identification of the locality rests not only on the occurrence of the name, but is supported by the proved fact that Joktan settled in the Yemen, along the south coast of Arabia, by the physical characteristics of the inhabitants of this region, and by the identification of the names of several others of the sons of Joktan. The province of Hadramaut is situated east of the modern Yemen (anciently, as shown in the article ARABIA SEE ARABIA , the limits of the latter province embraced almost the whole of the south of the peninsula), extending to the districts of Shihr and Mahreh. Its capital is Shibam, a very ancient city, of which the native writers give curious accounts, and its chief ports are Mirbat, Zafari, SEE SEPHAR, and Kishim, whence a great trade was carried on in ancient times with India and Africa. Hadramaut itself is generally cultivated, in contrast with the contiguous sandy deserts (called El-Ahkaf, where lived the gigantic race of Ad), is partly mountainous, with watered valleys, and is still celebrated for its frankincense (El-idrisi, ed. Jomard, 1, 54; Niebuhr, Descrip. p 245), exporting also gum-arabic, myrrh, dragon's blood, and aloes, the latter, however, being chiefly from Socotra, which is under the rule of the sheik of Keshim (Niebuhr, 1. c. sq.). The early kings of Hadramaut were Joktanites, distinct from the descendants of Yaarub, the progenitor of the Joktanite Arabs generally; and it is hence to be inferred that they were separately descended from Hazarmaveth. They maintained their independence against the powerful kings of limver until the latter were subdued at the Abyssinian invasion (ibn-Khaldfin, ap. Caussin, Essai, 1, 135 sq.). The modern people, although mixed with other races, are strongly characterized by fierce, fanatical, and restless dispositions. They are enterprising merchants, well known for their trading and travelling propensities.