Gregory V (Bruno), Pope
Gregory V (Bruno), Pope was a native of Germany, son of the duke Otho of Carinthia, and nephew of Otho III, king, of Germany. The latter caused him to be elected pope May 17, 996, when he was only 24 years of age. Eight days after, Gregory, in return, crowned his uncle Emperor of the West. As soon, however was Otho had recrossed the Alps, Crescentius, a powerful senator noted for his opposition to the previous pope (John XV), fomented a revolution, took the title of consul, drove out Gregory, and appointed in his place a Greek of low birth Philagathos, bishop of Piacenzas, who took the name of John XVI. The Council of Pavia (997) excommunicated both Crescentius and the and pope. Otho marched against Rome, and John XVI was made prisoner while attempting to escape. The servants of the emperor tore out his tongue, his nose, and his eyes,' and Gregory caused him to be paraded through the streets of Rome covered with the insignia of his office torn into tatters, and sitting backward upon an ass. Crescentius, who had taken refuge in the castle of St. Angelo, was beheaded, in spite of the articles of capitulation, which guaranteed his life. Otho took his widow for a mistress. Robert, king of France, having married his cousin Bertha without dispenesation, Gregory condemned him to do penance for seven years, deposed the archbishop who had officiated at the marriage, and demanded that Bertha should be discarded. Robert refusing to comply, was excommunicated; and so great was at that time the fear inspired by this ecclesiastical punishment, that only two persons dared remain in the king's service, and even they threw into the fire everything he had made use of, for fear of being contaminated by contact with it (P. Damien, Opera, Paris, 1663, fol., Epist. 5). At the end of three years Robert gave up the contest, and discarded Berthen to whom he was much attached. Giegaory died February 11 (or 18), 999, not without suspicion of poison. Several letters and patents of Gregory are contained in Baluze, Miscell. volume 6; five bulls in Ughelli, Italia sacra, 2:352-354; 3:618; 4:98; two in D'Acheay, Spicilegium, volume 6; one in Da Manes, Marca hispanica, page 952; and four letters in Labbe, Concil. 9:752 See Baronius, Annales, 16:345 sq.; F. Pagi. 2:262; J.B. fa Glen, he. 143; A. Duchesne, 1:938; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale 21:799; Hoefler, Die deutschen Päpste, 1:195.