Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot, cardinal, one of the most eminent politicians and diplomatists of the 16th century, was born at Ornans, Burgundy, August 20, 1517. He studied law at Padua, and afterwards theology at Louvain. He became canon of Liege, then bishop of Arras, and was often employed by the emperor Charles V in diplomatic missions. He went with his father to the diets of Worms and Augsburg, and was also present at the Council of Trent, where he defended the rights of the emperor, but vainly endeavored to array the Council against France. After the battle of Mühlberg he managed the capitulation of the electors John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse, and is said to have altered the articles so that the latter, instead of being free from imprisonment, was rendered liable to it. He was also very active in upholding the Augsburg Interim. In 1550 he became counsellor of state and keeper of the great seal; he accompanied the emperor to Innsbruck, drew up the treaty of Passau in 1552, and in 1553 negotiated underhand for the marriage of queen Mary of England and Philip II of Spain. When Charles V resigned the crown, Granvelle entered the service of his son, Philip II; in 1559 he signed the treaty of Chateau-Cambresis with France, and afterwards remained in the Netherlands as prime minister and counsellor of Margaret of Parma. Here he shared largely in the persecution of the Protestants, and was very active in strengthening Romanism. He founded 12 new bishoprics. The School of Baius (q.v.) found an earnest and persevering opponent in Granvelle. For these services he was created archbishop of Mechlin by the king, and cardinal by the pope. Being subsequently accused by his enemies of too great leniency towards the Protestants, he left the Netherlands in 1564. He was finally appointed archbishop of Besancon in 1584, and died at Madrid Sept. 21, 1586. His letters and memoirs were collected by abbot Boisot; they form 80 volumes under the title of Tresor de Granvella in the Archives of Besanson. The most interesting of them are published in the Documents inedits pour hist.
de la France. See Gerlach, Philip II et Granvella (Brussels, 1842); Motley, History of the Dutch Republic (N.Y. 1855, 3 volumes, 8vo); Prescott, Hist. of Philip II (Bost. 1855, 2 volumes). (J.N.P.)