Gospels, Apocryphal

Gospels, Apocryphal

(or SPURIOUS). By way of supplement we add the following. At an early period two classes of these works were noted: first, such as have reference to the infancy of Christ, or Evangelia Infantiae; and, secondly, such as speak of his passion, or Evangelia Passionis Josu Chisti. The following are now extant:

1. Protevangelium Jacobi, or, according to its title in the manuscripts, The History of James concerning the Birth of Mary ( ῾Η ἱστορία Ι᾿ακώβου περὶ τῆς γεννήσειος Μαρίας). See Tischendorf, Evangelia Apocrypha (Leipsic, 1853), pages 1-49; Wright, Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, Collected and Edited from Syriac MSS. in the British Museum (Lond. 1865).

2. Evangeliunm Pseudo-Matthaei sive Liber de Ortu Beatae Mariae et Infantia Salvatoris. See Thilo, Codex Apocryphus New Test. pages 337- 400; Schade, Liber de Infantia Mariae et Christi Salvatoris (Halle, 1869); Tischendorf, l.c. pages 50-105.

3. Evangelium de Nativitate Mariae, which seems to be but another form of 2. See Tischendorf, l.c. pages 106-114.

4. Historia Josephi Fabri Lignarii. See Tischendorf, pages 115-133.

5. Evangelium Thoma. Tischendorf, who discovered different recensions, gives a threefold text, two in Greek, and one in Latin. The Greek titles are (1), Θωμᾶ ἰσραηλίτου φιλοσόφου ῥητὰ εἰς τὰ παιδικὰ τοῦ Κυρίου: (2) Σύνγραμμα τοῦ ἁγίου: (3) Α᾿ποστόλου Θωμᾶ περὶ τῆς παιδικῆς ἀναστροφῆς τοῦ Κυρίου. The Latin title is, Tractatus de Pueritia Jesu Secundum Thomam. A Syriac text with an English translation was published by Wright (Lond. 1875).

6. Evangelium Infantiae Arabicum. See Tischendorf, pages 171-202.

7. Evangelium Nicodemi, consisting of two separate works, (a) Gesta Pilati and (b) Descensus Christi ad Infernos. Both these works were joined together at an early date, though the combination did not receive the name it now bears until after the time of Charlemagne. The original title of the first work was ῾Υπομνήματα τοῦ Κυρίον ἡμῶν Ι᾿ησοῦ Χριστοῦ πραχθέντα ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου, hence the Latin title, Gesta Pilati (in Gregor. Turon. Hist. Franec. 1:21, 24) or Acta Pilati (Justin Mart. Apolog. 1:35). The author of the Acta Pilati was probably a Jewish Christian, and the work is of some importance for the explanation and further elucidation, of the canonical gospels. See Hofmann, Leben Jesut, pages 264, 379, 386, 396; Tischendorf, Pilati circa Christum Judicio quid

Lucis Offeratur Exactis Pilati (Leipsic, 1855); Lipsius, Die Pilatus-Akten (Kiel, 1871).

The second part of the Evangelium Nicodemi, the Descensus Christi ad Infebnos, or Διήγησις περὶ τοῦ πάθους τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ι᾿ησ῝ου Χριστοῦ καὶ τῆς ἁγίας αὐτοῦ ἀναστάσεως, is of very little importance. In connection with these two works, Tischendorf gives some other apocryphal fabrications, which together form a group by themselves: namely, Epistola Pilati, incorporated in the apocryphal Acts of St. Peter and St. Paul (Greek text in Tischendorf, Acta Apost. Apocryph. page 16); which is a letter, addressed to the emperor Claudius Tiberius, containing a report of the resurrection of Christ; Epistola Pontii Pilati, another letter by him, in which he excuses the unjustness of his verdict by the impossibility of resisting the prevailing excitement; Anaphora Pilati, a report on the trial, execution, death, and resurrection of Jesus; Paradosis Pilati, a report of the examination of Pilate before the emperor, his condemnation and execution. A forgery of later origin is the Latin Epistola Pilati ad Tiberium (Tischendorf, page 411 sq.). To these Evangelia Apocrypha, which only constitute the smallest part of apocryphal gospels, the following must be added:

8. Evangelium Secundum Egyptios, i.e., "the Gospel of the Egyptians," in use among the Encratites (Clem. Alex. Strom. 3, 9, page 540 sq.; Potter, 13:553) and the Sabellians (Epiphan. Haer. 62:2).

9. Evangelium AEternum, the work of a Minorite of the 13th century, and condemned by pope Alexander IV.

10. Evangelium Andrae, mentioned by pope Innocent I (Epist. 6, ad Exuper.) and St. Augustine (Contra Advers. Leg. et Prophet. 20).

11. Evangeliumo Apellis, probably a mutilation of one of the canonical gospels.

12. Evangelium Duodecim Apostolorum, mentioned by Origen (Hom. 1 in Luc.); Ambros. (Progem. in Lucam); Jerome (Progem. in Matthew)

13. Evangelium Barnabos, mentioned in the Decretum Gelasii, 6:10, and in the catalogue of Anastasius Sinaita (by Credner, Gesch. des Kanons, page 241).

14. Evangelium Bartholomei, mentioned by Jerome, Praef. in Matt.; Gelasii, Decretum, 6:12.

15. Evangelium Basilius, mentioned by Origen, Tract. 26 in Matthew 33:34; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. 4:7.

16. Evangelium Cerinthi, seems to have been the Gospel according to Matthew, arbitrarily remodelled, and in this mutilated shape accepted by the Carpocratians.

17. Evangelium Ebionitarum, of which fragments are found in Epiphan. Haeres. 30:13,16, 21.

18. Evangelium Evs, in use by some gnostics (Epiphan. Haeres. 26:2, 35).

19. Evangelium Secundum Hebraeos, one of the oldest apocryphal productions, written in Chaldee with Hebrew letters, used by the Nazarenes, and translated into Greek and Latin by Jerome. See Nicholson, The Gospel according to the Hebrews (Lond. 1879).

20. Evangelium Jacobi Majoris, found in Spain in 1595, and condemned by Innocent XI in 1682.

21. Joannis de Transitu Marias, not published by Tischendorf.

22. Evangelium Judo Ischariota, used by the Cainites.

23. Evangelium Leucii.

24. Evangelia, quae Falsavit Lucianus, Apocrypha and Evangelia, quo Falsavit Hesychius, Apocrypha. See Griesbach, Prolog. in ed. Nov. Test. 3; Hug, Einleitung in das Neue Test. 37, 38.

25. Evangelia Manichaeorum, comprising

(a.) Evangelium Thomas, different from the one given under 5. (b.) Evangelium Vivum. (c.) Evangelium Philippi. (d.) Evangelium Abdos, also called Μόδιος, i.e., The Bushel.

26. Evangelium Marcionis, a mutilation of the Gospel according to Luke, by the founder of the famous antiJewish sect.

27. Marias Interrogationes Majores et Minores, two works of obscene contents, used by some Gnostics.

28. Evangelium Matthiae, mentioned by Origen, Jerome, Eusebius, Gelasius, and Beda.

29. Narratio de Legali Christi Sacerdotio, comp. Suidas, s.v. Ι᾿ησοῦς.

30. Evangelium Perfectionis, used by the Basilidians and other Gnostics.

31. Evangelium Petri was in use in the congregation of Rhossus, in Cilicia, towards the close of the 2d century.

32. Evangelium Philippi, used by the Gnostics.

33. Evangelium Simonitarum, or as it was called by themselves, Liber Quatuor Angulorum et Cardinumn Mundi, i.e., Book of the Four Corners and Hinges of the World, divided into four parts.

34. Evangelium Secundum Syros, probably identical with the Evangelium Secundium Hebraeos.

35. Evangelium Tatiani, a compilation from the four gospels, hence also called Diatessaron (τὸ διὰ τεσσάρων). See Zahn, Tatian's Diatesseron (Erlangen, 1881).

36. Evangelium Thaddaei, mentioned in some MSS. of the Decretum Gelasianum. See Credner, Zur Gesch. des Kranons (Halle, 1847), page 21.

37. Evangelium Valentini, which is perhaps the same as the Evangelium Veritatis used by the Valenltinians, and differing widely from the canonical gospels. See Hofmann, in Herzog-Plitt, s.v., Apokryphen des Neuen Testaments; Smith, Dict. of Christ. Biog. s.v. (B.P.)

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