Gardener (κηποῦρος), a class of workmen alluded to in Job 27:18, and mentioned in Joh 20:15; but how far the art of gardening was carried among the Hebrews we have few means of ascertaining. That they were acquainted with the process of grafting is evident from Ro 11:17,24, as well as from the minute prohibitions of thee Mishna; and the method of propagating' plants by layers or cuttings was not unknown (Isa 17:10). Buxtorf says that אריסין arisin (Mishna, Bikkurim, 1:2) [or, rather, בעל אריסות, were gardeners who tended and looked after gardens on consideration of receiving some portion of the fruit (Lex. Talm. s.v.); but that gardening was a special means of livelihood is clear from a proverb which contains a warning against rash speculations: " Who hires, a garden eats the birds; who hires gardens, him the birds eat" (Dukes Rabbis. Blumenlese, page 141). SEE GARDEN.