Gabinius (Graecized Γαβίνιος), AULUS, of unknown parentage, from a noted but plebeian family of Rome; one of Pompey's generals, who was sent into Judaea against Alexander (q.v.) and Antigonus (q.v.) with proconsular authority, B.C. cir. 64 (Josephus, Ant. 14:2, 3, 4). He was profligate in his youth (Cicero, pro Sext. 8, 9, etc.), and was made tribune of the people in B.C. 66, praetor in B.C. 61, and consul in B.C. 59; in all which offices he was active in political intrigues and party measures. On arriving in Syria, he made important changes there (.Tosephus, Ant. 14:10; War, 1:6). He restored Hyrcanus at Jerusalem, confirmed him in the high-priesthood, and settled governors and judges in the provinces, so that Judaea from a monarchy became an aristocracy. He established courts of justice at Jerusalem, Gadara (or at Dora), Amatha, Jericho, and Sepphoris, that the people, finding judges in all parts of the country, might not be obliged to go far from their habitations. On returning to Rome, Gabinius was prosecuted by the Syrians and exiled, B.C. 54. He was recalled by Julius Caesar, B.C. 49, and fell in the civil war between the triumvirs (Appian, Illyr. 12 and 27; Bell. Civ. 2:59; Dion Cass. 42:11, 12). Rachenstein has written a monograph entitled Ueber A. Gabinius (Aarau, 1826). See Smith, Diet. of Class. Biog. s.v.