Exercise, Bodily (σωματικὴ γυμνασία, i.e., physical training, i.q., gymnastics, 1Ti 4:8). What the apostle seems to disparage under this term is not the athletic discipline which it classically imports (Arrian, Epict. 1:27, 6; Polyb. 4:7, 6), and which his frequent allusions to the Grecian games (q.v.) might imply, but rather that ascetic mortification of the fleshly appetites, and even innocent affections (comp. verse 3; Col 2:23), which characterized some of the Jewish fanatics (verse 7), especially the Essenes (q.v.). — Fleischmann, Interpretatio, in loc.; Seelen, De Gymnasiis ad quae Peulus (in hoc loc.) alludit (Lubec, 1758). SEE TIMOTHY.