Epictetus a Roman Stoic philosopher, was born at Hierapolis, Phrygia, in the 1st century, and while young was a slave of Epaphroditus. When he became a freedman is not known. He was involved in the proscription by which Domitiani banished all philosphers from Rome, and retired to Nicopolis, in Epirus, where he opened a school of Stoic philosophy, and held those conversations which have been preserved in, the Manual and philosophical lectures, compiled from his discourses by his pupil Arrian. His teachings are summed up in the formula, "Bear and forbear." Recognizing only will and reason, his highest conception of life was to be passionless under whatever circumstances. "Man," he said, "is but a pilot; observe the star, hold the rudder, and be not distracted on thy way." He is supposed to have committed nothing to writing.