Engrave (פָּתִח, pathach', to open, hence [in Piel] to carve or grave, whether on wood, gems, or stone; thrice חָרָשׁ, charash', Ex 28:11; Ex 35:35; Ex 38:23, elsewhere artificer in general; έντυπόω, 2Co 3:7). The latter term, חָרָשׁ, so translated in the A.V., applies broadly to any artficer, whether in wood, stone, or metal: to restrict it to the engraver in Ex 35:35; Ex 38:23, is improper: a similar latitude must be given to the other term פַּתֵּחִ, which expresses the operation of the artificer; in Zec 3:9, ordinary stone-cutting is evidently intended. The specific description of an engraver was חָרִשׁ אֶבֶן (Ex 28:11), lit. a stone- graver, and his chief business was cutting names or devices on rings and seals; the only notices of engraving are in connection with the high-priest's dress, — the two onyx-stones, the twelve jewels, and the mitre-plate having inscriptions on them (Ex 28:11,21,36). The previous notices of signets (Ge 38:18; Ge 41:42) imply engraving. The art was widely spread throfighout the nations of antiquity (For. Quar. Rev. 26:32, 27:40), particularly among the Egyptians (Diod. 1:78; Wilkinson, 3:373), the Ethiopians (Her. 7:69), and the Indians (Von Bohlen, Indien, 2:122). SEE GRAVING.