Elea'zar (Hebrews Elazar', אֶלעָזָר, whom God has helped; Sept. and N.T. Ε᾿λεάζαρ; from the Graecized form Ε᾿λεάζαρος found in Maccabees and Josephus], came by contraction the later name Λάζαρος, Lazarus), a common name among the Hebrews, being borne by at least six persons mentioned in Scripture, besides several in the Apocrypha and Josephus. SEE ELIEZER.
1. The third son of Aaron, by Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, who was descended from Judah, through Pharez (Ex 6:23; Ex 28:1; for his descent, see Ge 38:29; Ge 46:12; Ru 4:18,20). He married a daughter of Putiel, who bore him Phinehas (Ex 6:25). After the death of Nadab and Abihu without children (Le 10:1; Nu 3:4), Eleazar was appointed chief over the principal Levites, to have the oversight of those who had charge of the sanctuary (Nu 3:32). With his brother Ithamar he ministered as a priest during their father's lifetime, and immediately before the death of their father he was invested on Mount Hor with the sacred garments, as the successor of Aaron in the office of high-priest (Nu 20:28). B.C. 1619. One of his first duties was, in conjunction with Moses, to superintend the census of the people (Nu 26:3). He also assisted at the inauguration of Joshua, and at the division of spoil taken from the Midianites (Nu 27:22; Nu 31:21). After the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, he took part in the distribution of the land (Jos 14:1). The time of his death is not mentioned in Scripture; Josephus says it took place about the same time as Joshua's, 25 years after the death of Moses. He is said to have been buried in "the hill of Phinehas" his son (Jos 24:33), where Josephus says his tomb existed (Ant. 5:1, 29), or possibly a town called Gibeath-Phinehas (Gesenius, Thesaur. pages 260, 261,). The high- priesthood is said to have remained in the family of Eleazar until the time of Eli, a descendant of Ithmar, into whose family, for some reason unknown, it passed until it was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok (1Sa 2:27; 1Ch 6:8; 1Ch 24:3; 1Ki 2:27; Josephus, Ant. 8:1, 3). SEE HIGH-PRIEST.
2. An inhabitant of Kirjath-jearim, on the "hill" (גַּבעָה), who was set apart by his fellow-townsmen to attend upon the ark, while it remained under the roof of his father Abinadab, after it had been returned to the Hebrews by the Philistines (1Sa 7:1-2). B.C. 1124. His service in this capacity was doubtless somewhat irregular, but justifiable under the circumstances; for there is no evidence that he belonged to the priestly order, although it is probable that he was of a Levitical family (who were not allowed to touch the ark, but had only the general charge of it, Nu 3:31; Nu 4:15). He seems to have continued to exercise this sole care of the sacred deposit for the twenty years that intervened till the judgeship of Samuel (1Sa 7:1), although the ark remained in the same place much longer (1Ch 13:7).
3. A Levite, son of Mahli, and grandson of Merari. B.C. cir. 1618. He is mentioned as having had only daughters, who were married by their "brethren" (i.e., their cousins) (1Ch 23:21-22; 1Ch 24:28).
4. The son of Dodo the Ahohite (בֶּן9אֲחֹחַי, i.e., possibly a descendant of Ahoah, of the tribe of Benjamin (1Ch 8:4); one of the three most eminent of David's thirty-seven distinguished heroes (1Ch 11:12), who "fought till his hand was weary" in maintaining with David and the other two a daring stand against the Philistines after "the men of Israel had gone away." He was also one of the same three when they broke through the Philistine host to gratify David's longing for a drink of water from the well of his native Bethlehem (2Sa 23:9-10,13). B.C. cir. 1046. SEE DAVID.
5. Son of Phinehas, and associated with the priests and Levites in taking charge of the sacred vessels restored to Jerusalem after the Exile (Ezr 8:36). B.C. 459. He is probably the same with one of those who encompassed the walls of Jerusalem on their completion (Ne 12:42). B.C. 446. It does not appear from these passages, however, that he was necessarily a priest or even a Levite.
6. One of the descendants (or citizens) of Parosh, an Israelite (i.e., layman) who renounced the Gentile wife whom he had married on returning from Babylon (Ezr 10:25). B.C. 410. Possibly he is the same with Number 5.
7. The first-named of the "principal men and learned" sent for by Ezra to accompany him to Jerusalem (1 Esd. 8:43); evidently the ELIEZER SEE ELIEZER (q.v.) of the Hebrews text (Ezr 8:16).
8. According to Josephus, the Jewish high-priest, brother, and successor of Simon the Just, and son of Onias I, whose correspondence with Ptolemy Philadelphus resulted in the Septuagint (q.v.) translation being made (Ant. 12:2, 5 sq.; 4, 4). SEE HIGH-PRIEST.
9. Surnamed AVARAN (1 Macc. 2:5, Αὐαράν, or Αὐράν, and so Josephus, Ant. 12:6, 1; 9:4. In 1 Macc. 6:43, the common reading ὁ Σαυαράν arises either from the insertion of C by mistake after O, or from a false division of Ε᾿λεάζαρος Αὐαράν), the fourth son of Mattathias, who fell by a noble act of self-devotion in an engagement with Antiochus Eupator, being crushed to death by the fall of an elephant which he stabbed under the belly in the belief that it bore the king, B.C. 164 (1 Macc. 6:43 sq.; Josephus, Ant. 12:19, 4; War, 1:1, 5; Ambrose, De offic. min. 40). In a former battle with Nicanor, Eleazar was appointed by Judas to read "the holy book" before the attack, and the watchword in the fight — "the help of God" — was his own name (2 Macc. 8:23).
The surname "Avaran" is probably connected with Arab. havar, "to pierce an animal behind" (Michaelis, s.v.). This derivation seems far better than that of Rediger (Ersch u. Gruber, s.v.) from Arab. khavaran, "an elephant- hide." In either case the title is derived from his exploit.
10. A distinguished scribe (Ε᾿λεάζαρος ... τῶν πρωτευόντων γραμματέων, 2 Macc. 6:18) of great age, who suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. 6:18-31). B.C. cir. 167. His death was marked by singular constancy and heroism, and seems to have produced considerable effect. Later traditions embellished the narrative by representing Eleazar as a priest (De Macc. 5), or even high- priest (Grimm, ad; Macc. 1.c.). He was also distinguished by the nobler title of "the proto-martyr of the old covenant," "the foundation of martyrdom" (Chrysost. Hom. 3 in 1 Macc. init. Comp. Ambrose, De Jacob. 2:10). For the general credibility of the history comp. Grimm, Excurs. uler 2 Macc. 6:18-8, in Exeg. Handb.; also Ewald, Gesch. 4:341, 532. SEE MACCABEES.
The name Eleazar in 3 Macc. 6 appears to have been borrowed from this Antiochian martyr, as belonging to one weighed down by age and suffering, and yet "helped by God." — Smith, s.v.
11. The father of Jason, ambassador from Judas Maccabeaus to Rome (1 Macc. 8:18). B.C. 161.
12. Son of Eliud and father of Matthan, which last was the grandfather of Joseph, Christ's reputed father (Mt 1:15). B.C. cir. 150.
13. A priest mentioned by Josephus as having charge of the Temple treasures, who sought to divert Crassus from pillaging the sanctuary by the largess of a beam of gold (Ant. 14:7, 1).
14. A son of Boethus, whom Archelaus put into the high-priesthood in place of his brother Joazar, but soon displaced by Jesus the son of Sie (Josephus, Ant. 17:13, 1).
15. Son of Ananus (or Ananias), made high-priest in the room of Ishmael (son of Phabi) by Gratus, who deposed him after one year in favor of Simon son of Camithus (Josephus, Ant. 18:2, 2). While a youth, his boldness led him, as prefect of the Temple, to advise the Jews to refuse all foreign presents (Josephus, War, 2:17, 2). He had been seized by the Sicarii as a hostage for ten prisoners of their own number (Ant. 20:9, 3). He was one of the generals chosen by the Jews for Idumaea during the revolt under Cestius (War, 2:20, 4).
16. Son of Dinseus, a robber who for many years infested the mountains of Samaria, whose troop was at length broken up by Cumanus (Josephus, Ant. 20:6, 1). He was himself captured by stratagem and sent to Rome by Felix (ib. 8, 5). He seems to be the same with the notorious rebel commander of Massada, at whose instigation the desperate garrison committed suicide (War, 7:8-9; comp. Ant. 20:1, 1; War, 2:13, 2).
17. A companion of Simoni of Gerasa; sent by the latter to endeavor to persuade the garrison of Herodium to capitulate, but indignantly put to death by them (Josephus, War, 4:9, 5).
18. A young Jew of great valor in the siege of Machaerus by Bassus; captured by Rufus, but released by the Romans on condition of the surrender of the fortress (Josephus, War, 7:6, 4).
19. A Jewish conjuror whom Josephus speaks of having seen exorcise daemons in the presence of Vespasian and his officers by means of a magical ring (Ant. 8:2, 5).
20. A son of Sameas, and born in Saab in Galilee, who performed a heroic act of valor and self-devotion during the final siege of Jerusalem (Josephus, War, 3:7, 21).
21. Son of Simon, and ringleader of the Zealots in the final convulsions of the Jewish nation (Josephus, War, 4:4, 1). He first appears as possessor of a large amount of plunder from the Romans under Cestius, which gave him control of public affairs (ib. 2:20, 3). During the siege by Titus he held the Temple against the other factions (ib. 5:1, 2), being supplied by the sacred stores of provisions (ib. 3); but at length he formed a coalition with one of these opponents, John of Gischala, who occupied the remainder of the eastern part of the city (ib. 5:6, 1), having lost his vantage by a stratagem of the latter (ib. 3, 1). See the full account under JERUSALEM SEE JERUSALEM .