Dutch Version of the Scriptures
Dutch Version Of The Scriptures Dutch (sometimes styled "Low Dutch," to distinguish it from "High Dutch," or German) is the language spoken by all classes in Holland. It is also used to a great extent in South Africa, more or less in Java, the Moluccas and the other Dutch colonies, and among the Dutch colonists in the United States. The first Dutch version was probably the one published at Delft in 1477, under the title De Bybel dat nive Testament. 2 Deele... wol overgheset ut den Latine in Duytsche (fol.). There is no doubt that this edition was followed by others, for in the edict published October 14, 1529, at the command of Charles V, three editions. of the New Test. are mentioned, which were condemned. In 1528 there was published by W. Vorstmann, at Antwerp, De Bibel Tgeheele oude ende nieuwe Testament met grooter naersticheyt na dem Latijnschen text gecorrigeret. This is said to have been the second of the editions of the Bible condemned by Charles V, because they were designed for Catholics. In 1535 H. Petersen published, at Antwerp, Dey bibel Tgeheele oude ende Nieuwe Testament, met groter neersticheyt ghecorrigeert. In 1560 N. Bieskens van Diest published Der Bibel inhoudende dat oude ende Nieuwe Testament, and in 1563 L. Kindern published another edition, in which 1Jo 5:7, is wanting. This edition is remarkable as having been printed op de Nordsee. In 1565 was published at Emden, in folio, Biblia dat is de gantsche Heylighe Schhrift grondelick ende trouwelik, verduytschet, met verklaringhe duysterer woorden, redenen en spreucken, ende verscheyden lectien. This is a translation of Luther's version, known under the name of Uylenspiegels-Bijbel, or Deux-des-Bijbel, according to the glosses in Ecclus. 19:5 and Ne 3:5. In 1571 was,published Biblia dat is de gantsche Heylighe Schrift, grondelic enlde trouwelick verduytschet. Met verklaringhe duysterer woorden, redenen en spreucken, ende verscheyden Lectien die in andere loflike ouersettinghen ghevondem, ende hier aen de Cant toe ghesettet. zyn. This edition is very rare, having been printed at Ghent under the Spanish sway. In the same year the necessity of procuring an improved version was publicly discussed, but it was not until the famous Synod of Dort, in 1618-19, that actual preparations were made for immediate commencement of the work. For the translation of the Old Testament were chosen John Bogerman (1576-1637), first professor of theology at Franeker, a very learned and able man, but odious to the Remonstrants for his translation of Beza's severe treatise, De la Punition des Heretiques, his polemical work against Grotius, and his arbitrary bearing as president of the great synod; Willem Baudart, pastor at Zutphen; Gerson Bucer, author of De Gubernatione Ecclesiae, which drew upon him the.hatred of James I. For the translation of the New Test. andApocrypha were chosen Jacobus Rolandus, minister at Amsterdam; Hermanus Faukelius (1569-1621), minister at Middelburg, and Petrus Cornelii, minister at Enkhuysen. As substitutes for the Old Test. company were chosen Antonius. Thysius, professor at Harderwyk, afterwards at Leyden; Jacobus Rolandus and H. Faukelius, as above named. Those for the New Test. were Festius Hommius, minister at Leyden; Antonius Walseus, professor at Leyden, and Jadocus Hoingius, rector of the academy at Harderwyk. Besides the translators, there were appointed revisers on the nomination of the delegates from the different provinces. These were —
1. FOR THE OLD TESTAMENT.
Gelderland. — Antonius Thysius. South Holland. — Johannes Polyander, professor at Leyden. North Holland. — Petrus Plancius, eminent for his scientific attainments. Zeeland. — Jadocus Larenus, minister at Flushing. Friesland. — Sibrandus Lubbertu, professor at Franeker, famous for his skill in controversy against Bellarmine, Sociuus, Grotius, and others. Overyssel. — Jacobus Revius, rector of a college at Leyden. Groningen. — Francis Gomar (1563-1641), professor of theology.
2. FOR THE NEW TESTAMENT.
Gelderland. — Sebastian Damman, minister at Zutphen. South Holland. — Festus Hommius. North Holand. — Gosuinus Geldorpius. Zeeland. — Antonius Waleus. Friesland. — Bernardus Fullenius, minister at Leenwardeun.
Overyssel. — Johannes Langins, but he removing from the province the next year, Kaspar Sibelius of Deventer was put in his place. Groningen. — Ubbo Emmius, professor at Groningen.
A petition was presented to the states-general, requesting them to undertake the expense of the work. The translators of the Old Test. commenced their work at Leyden in 1626, and completed it in 1632; those of the New Test. commenced in 1628, and completed in 1634. Each book was printed as soon as finished, and a copy was sent to each of the revisers. The revision of the Old Test. was begun in 1633, and completed in 1634. The revisers of the New Test. commenced their undertaking in the latter year. None of the translators long survived the completion of the work. The first edition of this version was published at Leyden, by Paulus Aerthz van Ravensheyn, in 1637, under the title Biblia dat is . . . des ouden en des nieuwen Testaments. Nu eerst door Last der Hoogh-Mog Heeren Staten General . . . en volgens het Besluyt van de Synode Nationael, gehouden tot Dordrecht, inde Jaeren 1618 ende 1619. Without giving the titles, we will only mention that meanwhile at least six other editions were published. That the version published in 1637 was repeatedly issued is a matter of course. When the first edition was published the Remonstrants were opposed to the translation; but when they had carefully examined it, they were so struck with its faithfulness and accuracy that they adopted the Old Test. as their own. After the lapse of more than forty years, a version of the New Test. was executed expressly for their use by Christian Hartsoeker, an Arminian minister at Rotterdam, and was published at Amsterdam, by Hendrick en Dirk, in 1680, under the title Het Nieuwe Testament of verbondt Uit het Grieksch op nieuws vertaelt door Christian Hartsoeker Bedinaer de H. Evang. in de remonstrantsche gemeinte tot Rotterdam. Met byvajing van eenige Korte aenteekningen. This version, although professedly a new translation from the Greek, chiefly followed that of the synod. For a long time the Lutherans and Mennonites used the translation of Nicolaus Biestkens, first published in 1560; but in 1648 M.A. Viszcher prepared Biblia, Dat is de gantsche H. Schrifture vervattende alle de Boecken des Ouden ende des Nieuwen Testaments. Van nieuws uyt D. M. Luthers Hoog-Duytsche Bibel in onse Nederlandsche tale getrouwelyck over-geset, tot dienst van de Christelyoke Gemeynten donveranderde Augsburgische Confessie in dese Nederlande (Gedruct t'Amsterdam by Rieuwert Dircksz van Baardt). The title-page is followed by an engraving, representing Martin Luther holding in his hand the Augsburg Confession. Below the engraving the following lines are printed in Latin and Dutch:
"Roma orbem domnit, Romam sibi Papa subegit, Viribtus ills suis, fraudibns iste suis. Quanto iste major Lutherus, major et illa, Istum illamque uno qui domuit calama."
This Bible, also called Viszcher's Bible, was henceforth used by the Lutherans, and contains, besides all the prefaces, Luther's marginal readings.
In 1717 a New Test. was published at Amsterdam, the printing having been done at the expense of Peter I of Russia; in 1721 another edition was published, also at the expense of the emperor, in five volumes. The Dutch translation is printed on one column, the other having been left blank, because the emperor intended to have the Russian version printed on it.
In 1825 a new translation, in the modern style and orthography, by the learned Prof. Van der Palm, of Leyden, was published; and though not adopted in churches, it is greatly esteemed and extensively used.
A revised edition of the established version was published in 1834; the orthography introduced was that according to the system of Prof. Siegenbeek, which had received the sanction of the government. This system has, however, fallen into disrepute, and was not adopted in subsequent editions. Within a recent period the Netherlands Bible Society appointed a commission to modernize the orthography of the Bible, and the alterations which were introduced, both in spelling and in some points of grammar, were considerable. All the editions printed now by that society are with these alterations.
The British and Foreign Bible Society also issued several editions of the authorized Dutch version. The first edition, consisting of five thousand copies of the New Test., appeared in 1809, and other editions of the entire Bible followed since. The total number of copies issued by the British and Foreign Bible Society up to March 31, 1884, amounted to 1,823,338, besides five thousand copies of the New Test, with English. The Netherlands Bible Society has distributed, since its formation in 1815, altogether 1,530,844 copies. (B.P.)