Drunk (this and its related words, "drunken," "drunkard," etc., are represented in Hebrew by some form of the verbs שָׁכִר, shakar', to become intoxicated; שָׁתָה, shathah', to drink simply; רָוָה, ravah', to drink to satiety; סָבָא, saba', to drink to excess; Gr. μεθύω). The first instance of intoxication on record is that of Noah (Ge 9:21), who was probably ignorant of the effects of the expressed juice of the grape. The sin of drunkenness is most expressly condemned in the Scriptures (Ro 13:13; 1Co 6:9-10; Eph 5:18; 1Th 5:7-8). SEE TEMPERANCE. The use of strong drink, even to excess, was not uncommon among the Jews. This is inferred from the striking figures with which the use and effects of it have furnished the sacred writers, and also from the various express prohibitions and penalties (Ps 107:27; Isa 5:11; Isa 24:20; Isa 49:26; Isa 51:17-22; Pr 21:1; Hab 2:15-16). SEE DRINK, STRONG. Men are sometimes represented as drunk with sorrow, with afflictions, and with the wine of God's wrath (Isa 63:6; Jer 51:57; Eze 23:33). (See Wemyss, Symbol. Dict. s.v.) Persons under the influence of superstition, idolatry, and delusion are said to be drunk, because they make no use of their natural reason (Isa 28:7; Re 17:2). Drunkenness sometimes denotes abundance, satiety (De 32:42; Isa 49:26). To "add drunkenness to thirst" (De 29:19) is to add one sin to another; i.e., not only to pine in secret after idol-worship, but openly practice it (see Stuart's Hebrews Chrest. on this passage).