DiscalceâtI, or bArefooted mOnks and nUns
Discalceâti, Or Barefooted Monks And Nuns is the generic name of several religions orders whose members wear only sandals of leather, wood, or knitting-work. The Franciscans have particularly been designated by that name. The different orders are,
1. The barefooted monks of St. Augustine, founded at Talavera by command of Philip II, and which afterwards spread throughout France and the East and West Indies.
2. The barefooted nuns of St. Augustine, established in 1589 by a Spanish maid of honor, Prudenia Grille, in the convent of the Visitation at Madrid.
3. The barefooted Ladies of Mercy for the liberation of prisoners, established at Biso and Amorayna, Spain, in 1604, by Peter John of Baptista.
4. The barefooted Carmelites, male and female (barefooted monks of the Cross, at Avila), founded in 1562 by Theresa, and soon spread over the whole of Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Germany, and India. A part of these not belonging to Spain, are called Congregation of the barefooted Carmelites of St. Elias.
5. The barefooted Trinitarians, established at Val de Penias, in 1596, by John Baptiste de la Conception: their dress is white, with a red or blue cross, and a brown cloak and hood; in the choir they wear over this a tan- colored cloak. This order spread over Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, and Italy.
6. The barefooted Minorites (Minorites of the Rigid Observance in Spain; Minorites capucins, evangelical brethren), established in 1494 by John of Guadaloupe, in the province of Granada. After many difficulties with the popes, etc., they in 1517 took the name of the Reformed Observance, and established twelve provinces in Spain, Portugal, India, and America.
7. The Recollects Minorites of France (les Recollets), established in 1592 by the Count de Nevers, who soon established twelve provinces in France, Flanders, and Canada.
8. The Minorites of St. Peter of Alcantara, established by him in 1540 at Placencia: they adhere to the strict rules of the Anachorets. The order is yet very numerous in Italy.
9. Minorites of Hieronymus of Lanza, established by him in 1545, but suppressed in 1562.
10. Minorites Capuchins, SEE CAPUCHINS.
11. Minorites of John of Puebla, founded by him in 1489 in the Sierra Morena: in the 16th century they were formally incorporated in the order of the Regular Observance.
12. Soccolanti (Cordeliers); see Minorites of the Observance.
13. Minorites Celestines (poor hermits Celestins), established in 1294 by some Minorites returned from a mission in Armenia. After the death of pope Celestin V they fell into disgrace, and were driven to Greece; returning finally to Apulia, they were persecuted as heretics and schismatics by the Inquisition. Many fled to France, where, with Tuscan and French Minorites, they founded the Congregation of Narbonne, and the Spiritual Congregation, which were suppressed in 1318 by the Inquisition, part of them being put to death, and the others imprisoned for life.
14. Sisters of the Ave Maria.
15. Female Capuchins.
16. Clarissines of the Stricter Observance, established at Albano in 1631 by Francisca of Jesus Maria, and whose rule was adopted in some Italian convents.
17. Female anchorites of St. Peter of Alcantara, established in 1676 at Ja Fassa by cardinal Francis Barberini, are found only in Italy.
18. Barefooted brethren and sisters of the 3d order of St. Francis (gli Scalzi), in Sicily, Dalmatia, Istria, etc.; established in 1540 by Jacob of Cugubio, in the convent of La Tropa. They extended rapidly, but were in 1602 united to the Congregation of the 3d order of Lombards.
19. Nuns of the 3d order of St. Francis of the Stricter Observance in France (les Picpus), established in 1593 by Vincent Mussart at Franconville, and endowed with the convent of Piepus, at Paris, in 1601. They devoted themselves to the erection and management of hospitals; abolished in 1789, they were reorganized by the also; Coudrin in 1814, sanctioned by pope Pius VII, and in 1833 were appointed to the missions in the islands of the Pacific.
20. Recollect nuns of the 3d order of St. Francis, founded in 1633 at Limburg by Johanna van Neerich, who gave them very rigid rules: they were abolished in 1789.
21. Hospitallers of the 3d order of St. Francis (Minims, etc.), established at Madrid in 1567 by Bernhard of Obregon: they were widely disseminated in Portugal, Spain, and the Netherlands, and have but lately disappeared.
22. Female Choristers of Noli. 3d order of St. Francis, established by count Nicholas of Orsini and Spoleto in 1354 for his own choristers: dress, gray, with a white belt, streamer, and gray veil; the latter black on feast days.
23. Hermits of Monte Luco, founded in 1012: they count only a few anchorites at Spoleto in Umbria.
24. Hermits of St. John the Baptist, established in the bishoprics of Metz, Cambrai, and Bellai in 1630 by Michael of Sabina: they soon numbered 100, but disappeared in 1789.
25. Generally, all the congregations of regular Anchorites, and of the Minorites of the Observance. — Pierer, s.v. Barfüssermönche.