Cross, Orders of the in the Roman Church

Cross, Orders of the in the Roman Church.

1. Canons Regular of the Congregation of the holy Cross, founded in 1211 by Theodore de Celles, a descendant of the dukes of Bretagne. It was confirmed by Innocent IV in 1248, and was exempted from the jurisdiction of the bishops by John XXII in 1318. The order spread especially in the Netherlands, Western Germany, and France, and still exists in the Netherlands and Belgium, whence in 1850 a colony was sent over to the United States, where they have an establishment in the diocese of Milwaukee. See Helyot, who calls them Croisiers or Porte-Croix; American Catholic Almanac.

2. Croisiers (Cross-bearers) of Italy, another congregation of the same order, the origin of which is unknown, but which was renewed by pope Alexander III in 1169, and is now extinct.

3. Croisiers of Bohemia, SEE KNIGHTS, TEUTONIC.

4. Daughters of the Cross, founded by Madame de Villeneuve, in France, in 1640, under the direction of Vincent de Paul, and confirmed by pope Clement IX. They devote themselves principally to the instruction of girls, and have their principal establishment, with more than 100 members, at Paris. The order is rapidly increasing in France, and has one establishment in the United States, in the diocese of Natchitoches, founded in 1854. — Fehr, Geschichte der Minchsorden, 2:319.

5. Another congregation of Daughters of the Cross was founded in 1835 at Liege, by Habets, a Belgian priest. They teach, keep asylums for fallen women, etc., and have established several houses in Belgium and Germany. — Fehr, Geschichte der Monchsordmn, 2:322.

6. Sisters of the Cross, also called "Sisters of St. Andrew", founded in 1806 by Mademoiselle Bechier, in the diocese of Poitiers. They devote themselves to the instruction of children, and to the nursing of the sick in the country. They are very numerous in France.

7. Another congregation of Sisters of the Cross, also called "Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary," was founded by Abbe Moreau, at Mans, about 1834, and approved by the pope in 1857. They came to the United States in 1843, and have establishments in the dioceses of Fort Wayne, Philadelphia, and Chicago.

8. A Congregation of Regular Clerks of the Holy Cross was founded in 1835, together with the congregation mentioned under No. 7, by Abbe Moreau. It was afterwards united with the "Brothers of St. Joseph," founded about the same time by Very Rev. Mr. Dujarier, and the rule of the united congregations was approved by Pius IX in 1857. They had, in 1867, 82 houses and missions, of which 58 were in France, 12 in America, 7 in Bengal, 2 in Algeria, and 1 each in Rome, Poland, and Austria.

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