Confession is (1) general — made by a congregation; (2) auricular — private, to the priest's ear. Public confession of sins prevailed in the 4th century, and lasted longer in the West than in the East. Private confession is supposed to have been first appointed during the Decian persecution, from 249 to 251; but public confession in the East was first given up at Constantinople, owing to a scandal in 390. Theodulph, bishop of Orleans (835), ordered confession to be made once a year; and the rule was made absolute by the Council of Lateran (1215). It was usual to confess on the first Sunday in Lent. Tertullian, Origen, and St. Cyril are supposed to allude to private confession.