Concordance (Lat. concordantioe), a book containing the words in the Holy Scriptures, in alphabetical order, with their context more or less fully given, and a designation by chapter and verse of the places in which they are to be found. (See Glauchius, De usu Concorcantiarum Biblicarum, Lips. 1668.) While the Scriptures remained in manuscript, or were not divided into sections and paragraphs, indexes of their words and phrases could neither be formed nor used. As soon as any regular divisions began to be made, the importance of concordances, or alphabetical indexes, was felt, and learned men devoted their labors to form them. The first concordances were prepared for the Latin Vulgate. (See below.) See Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica, p. 112; Watts's Bibliotheca Britannica; Winer's Handbuch; Walch, Biblioth. Theol. 4:307; Rohr's Kritische Prediger-Bibliothek, 1841.; Meth. Quar. Review, 1847, p. 451; Princeton Review, 1828, p. 471. The following are the most important works of this description.
I. Hebrew. —
1. The first Hebrew Concordance was by Rabbi Isaac (or Mordecai) Nathan (q.v.), in 1445. It cost seven years' hard labor by himself and some assistants. It was first printed at Venice in 1524, fol., by Daniel Bomberg, then by Franzoni (ib. 1564, fol.), again by Pesaro (Basle, 1581, fol.), and afterwards at Rome in 1622. It is entirely Hebrew, and entitled Meir Nathib (מֵאִיר נָתִיב), "'The Light of the Way." It was translated into Latin by A. Reuchlin (Basil. 1556, fol., 1569, 4to), but both the Hebrew and the Latin editions are full of errors.
2. These errors were for the most part corrected and other deficiencies supplied by Mario di Calasio (q.v.), a Franciscan friar, who published Concordantiae Sacr. Bibl. Hebr. et Latin. (Romae, 1621, 4 vols. fol.), republished in London under the direction of W. Romaine (1747-9, 4 vols. fol.), under the patronage of all the monarchs in Europe, not excepting the pope himself.
3. Concordantiae Bibl. Ebraioe, nova et artificiosa methodo dispositoe (Basil. 1632, fol.), by John Buxtorf, the father, but published by his son. It takes for its basis the work of Rabbi Nathan, though it is much better arranged, more correctly printed, the roots more distinctly ascertained, and the meanings more accurately given; but as the references are made by Hebrew letters, and relate to the rabbinical divisions of the Old Testament, it, is of little service, unless the student is familiar with the Masoretic system. This work was abridged under the title of Fons Leonis, etc. (Berolini. 1677, 8vo). A new edition of Buxtorf's Heb. Concordance, by Bar, has lately been published (Stettini. 1861 sq., 4to).
4. Before the republication of Calasio there appeared Chr. Nolde's (q.v.) Concor. particularum Ebraeo-Chaldaicarum (Hafn. 1679, 4to: an edition seems to have been begun in 1675, fol., but this never saw the light). This concordance contains the particles, or indeclinable words, omitted in former (as well as later) concordances. The best edition of Nolde is that by Tympe (Jena, 1734, 4to). It contains, as an appendix, a Lexicon of the Hebrew Particles, by John Henry Michaelis and Christ. Koerber.
5. But the best, or at least to the English reader most important work up to the present century on this subject is The Hebrew Concordance, adapted to the English Bible, disposed after the manner of Buxtorf, by John Taylor, D.D. (London, 1754, 2 vols. fol.). It was the fruit of many years' labor, and still has its value.
6. An edition of Buxtorf's Heb. Concordance, which has received so much care and attention on the part of the editor as nearly to deserve the name of a new work — Hebraische and Chaldaische Concordanz zu den heiligen Schriften des alten Testaments, by Dr. Julius First (Leipzig, 1840, fol.), offers one of the most useful aids to the study of the Bible that has ever appeared. In addition to those of a more mechanical kind, such as a good type and clear arrangement, there are, 1. A corrected text, founded on Hahn's Vaznderhooght; 2. The Rabbinical significations; 3. Explanations in Latin, giving the etymology of the Rabbinical; Illustrations from the three Greek versions, the Aramaic Paraphrase, the Vulgate, etc.; the Greek words employed by the Seventy as renderings of the Hebrew; together with philological and archaeological notices, so as to make the Concordance contain a brief Hebrew lexicon.
7. The Englishman's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance, edited by G. V. Wigram (Lond. 1843, 2 vols. 8vo), is an original and exceedingly useful work, and remarkably accurate. It gives the Hebrew words in their order, but quotes the passages in which they occur from the common English Bible. It contains the first complete list of the Hebrews proper names ever made. It deserves to be more extensively known and used. Its high price is a serious check to its circulation.
8. Aaron Pick, The Bible Student's Concordance (Lond. 1845, 8vo), a work of little account to scholars.
9. W. Wilson, The Bible Student's Hebrew Guide (Lond. 1850, 4to), equally brief and insufficient.
Other and earlier Hebrews Concordances are: Rabbi Anschel, מִרכֶּבֶת הִמִּשׁנֶה (a vocabulary, with references to passages, Cracow, 1534, 4to, and later); Crinesius, Concordantioe Ebraicoe (Vitemb. 1627, 4to); Layman, Concordantioe Ebraeo-sacrae, etc. (1681, fol.); Trostius, Concordantiae Chaldaicae (Vitemb. 1617, 4to).
II. Greek Concordances.
(a) To the Septuagint. —
1. Conrad Kircher, Concordantioe Veteris Testamenti Graecae Ebraeis vocibus respondentes (Francof. 1607, 2 vols. 4to). This work follows the order of the Hebrew words, placing the corresponding Greek word after it; in consequence of which, it is more useful in consulting the Hebrew than the Greek Scriptures.
2. The best Greek Concordance to the Septuagint is that which bears the title A. Trommii Concordantioe Graecae Vers. vulgo dic. LXX Interpre. (Amst. et Traj. ad Rh. 1718, 2 vols. fol.). SEE TROMME. It follows the order of the Greek words, of which it first gives a Latin translation, and then the Hebrew word or words for which the Greek term is used in the Seventy. Then the different places in which the words occur follow in the order of the several books and chapters. When the word occurs in any of the Greek translators, Aquila, Symmachus, or Theodotion, the places where it is found are referred to at the end of the quotations from the Sept. The words of the Apocrypha are placed at the end of each enumeration. There are two indices at the end of the work: one Hebrew and Chaldaic, by examining which the Greek term used in the Septuagint for any Hebrew or Chaldee word is seen at once, with the Latin version and the place where it is found in: the Concordance, so that Tromme serves in a measure for a Hebrew Concordance; the other index contains a lexicon to the Hexapla of Origen, and comprehends the Greek words in the fragments of the old Greek translators published by Montfaucon.
(b) To the New Testament. —
1. The first Greek concordance to the New Testament, now exceedingly rare, is entitled Xysti Betuleii Concordantioe Graecoe Novi Testamenti (Basil. 1546, fol.). The author's real name was Birck.
2. A concordance to the Greek New Testament, projected and partly executed by Robert Stephens, and completed and published by his son Henry (Genev. 1594, and with a supplement, 1600, fol.), is too inaccurate to merit more than a passing notice.
3. Of much value is Erasmi Schmidii Novi Testamenti J. C. Graeci; hoc est, originalis linguae ταμιεῖον (Vitemb. 1638, fol.; revised ed. Gotha, 1717, fol.; also Glasg. 1819, 2 vols. 8vo; recently by the Messrs. Bagster of London, in a thin, flat pocket volume, and in another form, 32mo, being one of their "Polymicrian series").
4. J. Williams, concordance to the Greek Testament (Lond. 1767, 4to), a work especially useful to the mere English reader.
5. A new and very superior edition of Schmid's ταμιεῖον has been put forth by C. H. Bruder, Concordantioe (Leipz. 1842, 4to). Among the advantages of this edition, let it suffice to specify, 1. Fulness, accuracy, and correspondence with Griesbach's edition; 2. Regard has been paid to the editions of Lachmann and Scholz; all the readings of the Elzevirs, Mill, Bengel, Knapp, Tittmann, Scholz, and also of Erasmus, Robert Stephens's. third edition, and of Schmid himself, are either given or pointed out. The student is presented also with a selection of readings from the most ancient MSS., from the interpreters of Scripture who lived in the earlier ages of the Church, and the works of the ecclesiastical fathers: no various reading possessing critical value is omitted.
6. One of the most valuable aids for the general study of the New Testament which modern times have produced is The Englishman's Greek Concordance of the New Testament, being an attempt at a Verbal Connection between the Greek and the English Texts (Lond. 1839, 8vo). The work, which is carefully compiled, takes Schmid as its basis. The plan is the same as that of the "Englishman's Hebrew Concordance" above, and it is by the same editor. It has been republished in this country (N. Y. 1848, 8vo).
III. Latin Concordances. —
1. Antony of Padua (born A.D. 1195, died 1231) is said to have produced the first work of the kind, entitled Concordantiae Morales, which was formed from the Vulgate translation.
2. Hugo de Santo Caro, better known as Cardinal Hugo, a Dominican monk, who died about 1262, followed Antony in 1244, by compiling for the Vulgate a concordance of the Scriptures. Having given himself sedulously to the study of Holy Writ, with a view of writing a commentary thereon, he was, in order to facilitate his labor, led to project and undertake to form a concordance, calling to his aid his brother monks to the number of no fewer than five hundred. Their labors have been a rich storehouse for subsequent compilers. The concordance thus made was improved by Conrad of Halberstadt, who flourished about 1290, and by John of Segovia in the ensuing century.
3. R. Stephens, Concordantic Bibliorum utriusque Testamenti (1555, fol.).
4. After the revision of the Vulgate by Sixtus V, a concordance to it appeared, entitled Concordantiae Sacr. Bibl. Vulgat. edit. F. Lucae Brugensis (Antw. 1617; Paris, 1683). Most of the Latin concordances are reprints of this, e.g. by Luca and Phalesti (Vien. 1825, fol.).
5. A new Latin concordance to the Vulgate, edited by Ducrisson, appeared in Paris in 1838 (4to).
IV. German Concordances. —
1. The first German concordance was that of Conrad Agricola (Nurnb. 1609, fol.), repeatedly reprinted and revised.
2. The most useful is that of F. Lankisch, Concordant. Bibl. Germanico- Hebraico-Graecoe (Lips. 1677, fol., often reprinted; best edition that of Reineccius, Lips. 1718). There are several modern German concordances, the most noteworthy of which is
3. J. G. Hanff, Biblische Real-und Verbal-Concordenz (2 vols. in 4 pts. 8vo, Stuttg. 1828-34).
4. We may also mention a valuable concordance for the German Bible — Biblische Hand-Concordanzfur Relegionslehrer und alle Freunde der Heiligen Schrift (pub. by H. Schott, Leipzig, 1827, 8vo). The work is more comprehensive than similar writings in the English language. It is divided into three parts:
(1.) A full and complete register of all the words found in the Bible;
(2.) An index of the most important things, subjects, and ideas found in the Bible, with references to the places where they lie in the sacred volume; as, for instance, under the head "Lord's Supper, a meal commemorative of the death of Jesus, it brings us into intimate fellowship with Christ; the worthy participation of the same; spiritual enjoyment of the flesh and blood of Christ," etc.
(3.) The leading doctrines of Christianity systematically arranged, drawn up according to Luther's Catechism, and accompanied by scriptural proofs.
Other concordances in German are those of G. Buchner (Jena, 1750, 1757, 1776; Halle, 1837; Lpz. 1806), Wichmann (Lpz. 1782), F. J. Bernhard (Lpz. 1850-2), J. M. Otto (Sulzb. 1842), K. A. Toller (Stuttg. 1838), S. Lueg (Passau, 1841).
IV. The first complete French concordance was that of Mark Wilks, Concordance des Saintes Ecritures (Paris, 1840, 8vo).
V. English Concordances. —
1. The first concordance to the English version of the New Testament was published without date, but certainly before 1540, by "Mr. Thomas Gybson," being chiefly, as appears probable from the prefatory epistle to the reader, the work of the famous printer John Day. It is entitled The Concordance of the New Testament, most necessary to be had in the hands of all soche as desire the communication of any place contained in the New Testament.
2. The first English concordance to the entire Bible was that of John Marbeck - A Concordance, that is to saie, a Worke wherein by the order of the letters of the A, B, C, ye maie redely find any worde conteigned in the whole Bible, so often as it is there expressed or mentioned, Lond. 1550, fol. Till the' year 1555, when Robert Stephens published his concordance, it was not customary to mark the verses in books of this sort. At first it was thought sufficient to specify the chapter with the letters a, b, c, d, as 'marks to point out the beginning, middle, and end of each chapter. But in 1545 Robert Stephens divided the Bible into verses, thus preparing the way for a more exact reference in concordances, etc.; but Marbeck does not appear to have made use of this improvement, as his work refers merely to the chapters. — SEE MARBECK.
3. The following work, which appeared in the same year as the last, is a translation from the German — A Briefe and a Compendious Table, in maner of a concordance, openyng the waye to the principall Histories of the whole Bible, and the most comon articles grounded and comprehended in the Newe Testament and Olde, in maner as amply as doeth the great concordance of the Bible. Gathered and set forth by Henry Bullinger, Leo Jude, Conrade Pellicane, and by the other ministers of the Church of Ligurie. Translated from the Hygh Almayne into Englysh by Walter Lynne. To which is added, a Translation of the Third Boke of Machabees (8vo, 1550). Lynne, the translator, was an English printer, who flourished about the middle of the 16th century, a scholar, author, and translator of several books. SEE BULLINGER. An improved edition of the tabular concordance, adapted to the translation of 1611, was published by John Downame (London, 1646, 8vo).
4. All earlier English concordances were superseded by the more correct and valuable work of Alexander Cruden (q.v.), entitled A Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, etc., to which is added a concordance to the books called Apocrypha (1737, 4to). Three editions were published by the author during his life, and many have appeared since his death. The London edition of 1810 is the best standard edition. Several useful editions of Cruden have been put forth by the Messrs. Bagster, who have also issued An Alphabetical Index of the Holy Scriptures, comprising the Names, Characters, and Subjects, both of the Old and New Testament, in two sizes, which the Biblical student will find very serviceable.
Cruden's concordance has been for a century the basis of every other work of the kind, such as Brown's, Butterworth's, Coles's, Eadie's, etc. With all its excellences, however, it has more serious defects than is generally apprehended. The Rev. Thomas Scott was so well aware of this that he contemplated a revision of the work. Its chief fault is its great want of completeness, but a moiety of the words being really given at all, and only a part of the occurrences of these, the proper names being especially defective. These and other defects are in a good measure remedied in the edition issued by the "Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge" (Lond. 1859, 8vo), but this still is far from perfect. A really complete and accurate English concordance is yet a desideratum. The want is now met by Strong's Exhaustive Concordance to the Auth. Engl. Version of the Holy Scriptures (N. Y., 1849, 4to).