Commentaries, Biblical We supplement our article on this subject, in volume 2, by a notice of the principal expository works that have appeared later.
Lange's Bibelwerk, as translated and augmented by the various (chiefly American) scholars, under the general supervision of Dr. Schaff, covers the entire Bible, including the Apocrypha, in twenty-five large octavo volumes, and is the most complete thesaurus of exegetical, critical, doctrinal, and practical comment extant. The additions by the American editors have greatly enhanced its value.
Keil and Delitzsch on the entire Old Testament (transl. in Clark's Foreign Theological Library, Edinb. 25 volumes, 8vo) is, on the whole, the best simply exegetical commentary for scholars. The authors have shrunk from no difficulty, but have met every question in a careful, evangelical, and earnest spirit; and have brought to their task the ripest fruits of learning. Their readers, of course, will not agree with them on every point, but they will have reason to weigh well their judgment and their arguments. There is promise of a continuation of the work into the New Testament. Delitzsch has published notes on Hebrews (transl. likewise by the Messrs. Clark), and Keil has begun his comments on the Gospels. For the present, however, their work must be supplemented by Meyer on the New Testament (likewise in an English dress, by the Messrs. Clark of Edinb., 20 volumes, 8vo, not embracing Reverend). This is perhaps, on the whole, the best exegetical manual for scholars on the New Testament, being accurate, moderately rationalistic, and sufficiently copious for most purposes.
The Bible Commentary, or, as it is generally designated, The Speaker's Commentary (republished by the Scribners, N.Y. 10 volumes, 8vo), is peculiarly available for both scholars and ordinary readers, as it embraces a large amount of valuable exposition in a comparatively small compass. It is especially good on archaeological questions; is eminently conservative, and particularly commendable for its brief but excellent introductions to the- several books.
Wordsworth (The Holy Bible, with Notes, together with his Greek Testament, with Notes, covering, together, the entire canonical Scriptures [Lond. 1856-64, and several later editions, 10 volumes, imperial 4to] is throughout sound and judicious; suggestive but not exhaustive; scholarly rather than profound.
The Pulpit Commentary, by a number of English scholars (similar in this respect to The Bible Commentary above, but more practical and copious), of which about: thirty volumes, octavo, have already appeared, and which is intended to cover the whole Bible, has many excellent features, happily combining sound learning and practical piety. It is adapted. to general readers.
The Cambridge Bible is a series of small volumes for popular use (especially schools), and yet containing the results of the latest criticisms and researches, prepared by various English divines, and edited by dean Perowne, a large portion of which has already been issued.
Whedon's Commentary is intended for English readers, especially Sunday- school teachers, and is admirably pithy and suggestive. The New- Testament part (N.Y. and Lond. 5 volumes, 12mo) has lately been completed by Dr. Whedon himself, and the Old Test. has been intrusted to various scholars, who have already issued three volumes in similar style, and are expected to finish the work in five volumes more. Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown have combined in a practical commentary on the entire Scriptures, which has been published in several forms in Scotland, and reprinted in Philadelphia in one thick volume. The annotations are brief, but spiritual, and well adapted to ordinary readers.
Cowles has prepared a very judicious series of notes on all the Biblical books (N.Y. 16 volumes, 12mo), for pastors, teachers, and general readers.
Stier's Words of the Lord Jesus, together with his Words of the Angels, covers many very important passages of the New Testament, and is an almost unique specimen of exhaustive comment in the most evangelical and practical spirit. The whole has been republished by Tibbals & Son, New York, in three compact octavo volumes, with valuable improvements from Clark's translation out of the original German.
Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers (of which the New Testament portion, prepared by various eminent British clergymen, has appeared in London in three super-royal octavo volumes; and of which the Old Testament is in course of publication on a similar plan) is delightfully fresh and instructive.
Dr. Schaff is also editing an elegantly illustrated commentary on the New Testament, prepared by able American scholars, several volumes of which have already appeared, giving the results of criticism and explorations in a popular form.
The issue of the Anglo-American Revised New Testament, recently followed by the revised version of the Old Testament, has given a powerful stimulus to Bible study, and the International Sunday-school. Series of lessons has wonderfully aided in the same direction, especially the comments thereon abundantly issued in books and periodicals.
Among recent expositions on particular books of the Bible, available in an English dress for scholars, we notice as specially valuable, Ellicott's admirable notes on the Pastoral Epistles of Paul (reprinted in 2 volumes, 8vo, at Andover); Murphy, on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, and the Psalms (reprinted, ibid.); Godet, on Luke, John, and Romans (transl. in Clark's Foreign Evangelical Library, Edinb.); Luthardt, on John's Gospel (ibid.); Haupt, on 1 John (ibid.); Philippi, on Romans (ibid.); Gloag, on the Acts (ibid.); Glasgow, on Revelations (ibid.).; Lightfoot, on the Pauline Epistles (Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon, already issued by Macmillan, Lond.); Eadie, on Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, and Thessalonians (Lond. and Edinb., in part reprinted by Carter, N.Y.); Hodge, on Romans (new ed. Phila. 1871), Corinthians, and Ephesians; Turner, on Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and Hebrews (N.Y. 1852-56);
Demarest, on Peter (ibid. 1851-62); Hackett, on the Acts (new ed. Bost. 1858); Perowne, on the Psalms (new ed. Lond. 1870); Gardner, on Jude (Bost. 1856); Moore, on Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi (N.Y. eod.); Wright, on Ecclesiastes (Lond. 1883).
An excellent and discriminating review of exegetical writers, in past and recent times, may be found in Terry's Biblical Hermeneutics (N.Y. 1883), pages 603-738.