Clovesho (or Cliffs-hoe), Councils of
Clovesho (Or Cliff's-Hoe), Councils Of
(Concilium Cloveonense). These were provincial, and the locality is unknown, except that it was in the kingdom of Mercia, and probably near London (Haddan and Stubbs, Counc. 3:122). It was selected by the Council of Hertford, A.D. 673, as the place for the yearly synod of the English Church (ibid. 120), yet (singular to say) no Council of Clovesho was recorded until--
I. Held in 716, when the privilege of Wihtred of Kent to the churches of Kent was confirmed by a general synod of the English bishops, under Ethelbald, king of Mercia (Haddan and Stubbs, Counc. 3:300-302).
II. Held in 742; Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, and Cuthbert, archbishop of Canterbnry, presiding. Several bishops attended, and diligent inquiry was made how matters relating to religion, and particularly to the creed, were ordered in the infancy of the Church of England, and in what esteem monasteries then were. The ordinance of king Wihtred, concerning the election and authority of the heads of monasteries, made in the Council of Becanceld, in 692, was read, and renewed by Ethelbald in these words:
"I, Ethelbald, king of the Mercians,for the health of my soul and the stability of my kingdom, and out of reverence to the venerable archbishop Cuthbert, confirm it by the subscription of my own muniticent hand, that the liberty, honor, authority, and security of the Church of Christ be contradicted by no man; but that she and all the lands belonging to her be free from all secular services, except military expedition, and the building of a bridge or castle. And we charge that this be irrefragably and immutably observed by all, as the aforesaid king Wihtred ordained for him and his." See Labbe, Concil. iv, 1532; Wilkins, Concil. i, 86.
III. Held in the beginning of September, 747, in the presence of Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, Cuthbert of Canterbury presiding; eleven bishops and several priests attended. Two letters from pope Zachary were read, alter which thirty canons were drawn up.
1. Charges every bishop to be ready to defend his pastoral charge, and the canonical institutions of the Church of Christ, with his utmost endeavors, and to be an example of rated, not of worldliness, to his people, and to preach sound doctrine.
2. Exhorts bishops to unity and charity among themselves, so that, however far distant in sees, they may yet be joined together in mind by one spirit serving God in faith, hope, and charity, and praying for each other.
3. Orders annual episcopal visitations, and directs the bishop to call the people of every condition together to convenient places, and to plainly leach them, and forbid then all pagan and superstitious observances, etc.
4. Directs bishops to exhort all abbots and abbesses within their dioceses to exhibit a good example in their lives, and to rule well their houses.
5. Orders bishops to visit those monasteries which, owing to the corruption of the times, were governed by laymen
6. Directs due inquiry to be made concerning the good life and sound faith of candidates for priest's orders.
7. Directs bishops, abbots, and abbesses to take care that their" families" do incessantly apply their minds to reading.
8. Exhorts priests to the right discharge of their duty; to desist from secular business; to serve at the altar with the utmost application; carefully to preserve tile house of prayer and its furniture: to spend their time ill reading, celebrating masses, and psalmody, etc.
9. Exhorts priests, in the places assigned to them by their bishops, to attend to the duties of the apostolical commission, ill baptizing, tea(hies, and visiting, and carefully to abstain from all wicked and ridiculous conversation.
10. Directs that priests should learn how to perform, according to tile lawful riles, every office belonging to their order; that they shall also learn to construe and explain in their native tongue the Lord's Prayer and Creed, and the sacred words used at mass and in holy baptism; that they shall understand the spiritual signification of the sacraments, etc.
11. Relates to the faith held by priests, orders that it shall be sound and sincere, and that their ministrations shall be uniform; that they shall teach all men that" without faith it is impossible to please God;" that they shall Instil the creed into them, and propose it to infants and their sponsors,
12. Forbids priests "to prate in church," and "to dislocate or confound the composure and distinction of the sacred words" by theatrical pronunciation; directs them to follow the "plain song" according to the custom of the Church; or, if they cannot do that, simply to read the words. Also forbids priests to presume to interfere in episcopal functions.
13. Orders the due observation of the festivals of our Lord and Saviour and of the nativity of tile saints, according to the Roman martyrology.
14. Orders the due observation of the Lord's day.
15. Orders that the seven canonical hours of prayer be diligently observed.
16. Orders that the Litanies or rogations be kept by the clergy and people, with great reverence, on St. Mark's day, and on the three days preceding Ascension day.
17. Orders the observance of the "birthdays" of pope Gregory, of St. Augustine of Canterbury, who "first brought the knowledge of faith, the sacrament of baptism, and the notice of the heavenly country," to the English nation.
18. Orders the observance of the ember fasts in the fourth, seventh, and tenth months, according to the Roman ritual.
19. Relates to the behavior and dress of monks and nuns.
20. Charges bishops to take care that monasteries, as their name imports, be honest retreats for the silent and quiet, not receptacles fin' versifiers, harpers, and buffoons forbids too much familiarity with laymen, especially to nuns: bids the latter not spend their time in filthy talk, junketing, drunkenness, luxury, nor in making vestments of diverse and vainglorious colors, but rather in reading books and singing psalms.
21. Enjoins all monks and ecclesiastics to avoid the sin of drunkenness, and forbids them to help themselves to drink before three in the afternoon? except in cases of necessity.
22. Admonishes monks and ecclesiastics to keep them selves always prepared to receive tile holy communion.
23. Encourages boys among the laity to receive frequently the communion, while they are not yet corrupted; also bachelors and married men who avoid sin, lest they grow weak for want of the salutary meat and drink.
24. Orders that laymen be well tried before they be admitted into the ecclesiastical state, or late monasteries.
26. Relates to almsgiving.
27. Relates to psalmody, as used for the cure of the soul and as a satisfaction for Slit.
28. Forbids to receive greater numbers into monasteries' than can be maintained; relates to the dress of monk and nuns.
29. Forbids clerks, monks, and nuns to dwell with lay persons.
30. Enjoins, among other things, that prayer be made by all monks and ecclesiastics for kings and dukes, and for the safety of all Christian people.
See Labbe, Concil. vi, 1565; Wilkins, Concil. i, 94.
IV. Held in 794, called "Synodale Concilium," and "Sanctum Coucilium:" two grants are extant made there (Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus p. 164- 167; Haddan and Stubbs, Counc. iii. 483-485).
V. Held in 798, referred wrongly by Spelman to 800: some charters were passed there (Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus, p. 175, 186, 1019; Haddan and Stubbs, Counc. iii, 512-518).
There are intimations also of the annual synod having been held, bat without mention of the place (e.g. 704, and 736 or 737, both Mercian councils, and again, 755, Haddan and Stubbs, Counc. iii. 267, 337, 390), which may easily, therefore, have been Clovesho, and probably was so.
VI. Held in 800, by Athelhard, archbishop of Canterbury, in the presence of Kenulf, king of the Mercians. Laws were made for the preservation of Church property, and the faith of the Church declared to be substantially the same as that delivered by St. Augustine. See Labile, Council. vii, 1153; Wilkins, Concil. i, 162.
VII. Held Oct. 12, 803, by Athelhard of Canterbury, with twelve bishops of his province, and four priest abbots. The object of this council was to settle the primacy finally at Canterbury, and to restore the dioceses which had been taken from that province by king Offa and pope Adrian, viz. Lichfield, Worcester, Leicester, Sidnachester (probably Hatfield, in Lincolnshire), Hereford, Helman (probably Ehnham, in Norfolk), and Thetford. All these sees had been united to make a preyince for the archbishop of Lichfield, who at this time was Adulf Leo Ill, upon his at raining the popedom, favored the request of king Kenulf and Athelhard, that the dismembered dioceses should be restored to the archbishop-tic of Canterbury, which was finally done in this council, which Adulf himself attended. It was decreed. "that the see archiepiscopal from this time forward, should never be in the monastery of Lichfield, nor in any other place but the city of Canterbury, where Christ's Church is, and where the Catholic faith first, shone forth in this island." The deed is signed by Athelhard and twelve bishops, each making beside his signature the sign of the cross. See Labbe, Council. vii, 1189; Wilkins, Council. i, 166.
VIII. Held in 822. Knulf, king of Mercia, having forcibly seized some of the Church lands in Kent, threatening the archbishop Wulfred with banishment in case of resistance, gave them to his daughter Wendritha, abbess of Winchcomhe, in Gloucestershire. After the death of Knulf, Wulfred was enabled to obtain redress, and in this council the property of the Church was restored. See Labbe, Concil. vii, 1527; Wilkins, Concil. i, 172.
IX. Held in 824. In this council the difference which had existed between Herbert of Worcester and the monks of Berkeley, concerning the monastery of Westbury, was settled; the monastery being surrendered to the bishop. The decree, dated Oct. 30, was signed by the king, twelve bishops, four abbots, the pope's deputy, and several lords. See Labbe, Concil. vii, 1555; Wilkins, Concil. i, 175.