Cloak (מעַיל, meil', Isa 59:17, elsewhere rendered in our version "robe," or "mantle") was an upper garment or robe (of cotton?), which extended below the knees, open at the top, so as to be drawn over the head, and having arm-holes. It was worn by the high-priest under the ephod (Ex 28:31); also by kings and persons of distinction (1Sa 15:27; Job 1:20; Job 2:12), and by women (2Sa 13:18). SEE APPAREL.
So, in the New Testament, the word ἱματίον, rendered "cloak" in Mt 5:40, is in its plural form taken for garments in general in other places (Mt 17:2; Mt 26:65; Ac 7:58; Ac 9:39). The cloak, or pallium (Ac 9:39), was the outer garment (different from the "coat" or tunic, χιτών), and it seems to have been a large piece of woollen cloth nearly square, which was wrapped round the body, or fastened about the shoulders, and served also to wrap the wearer in at night. It might not be taken by a creditor (Ex 22:26-27), though the tunic could (Mt 5:40), which fact gives peculiar force to the injunction of our Lord. SEE CLOTHING.
The φελόνης, rendered "cloak" in 2Ti 4:13, was the Roman poenula, a thick upper garment, used chiefly in traveling, instead of the toga, as a protection from the weather. It seems to have been a long cloak without sleeves, with only an opening for the head. Others suppose it to have been a traveling-bag or portmanteau for books, etc. Discussions de palo Pauli have been written by Brenner (Giess. 1734), Heinse (Viteb.
1697), Lakemacher (Helmst. 1722), Rusmeier (Gryph. 1731), Vechner (s. 1. 1678). SEE DRESS, etc.