Clement XI

Clement XI

Pope (Giovanni Francesco, count of Albani), was born at Pesaro July 22, 1649. He was secretary of the secret briefs under Innocent XI, Alexander VIII, and Innocent XII, and, as such, wrote, among others, the celebrated bull of Alexander VIII (1691) against the Gallican liberties adopted by a national convention of the French bishops in 1682. He became cardinal deacon in 1690, and cardinal priest in 1700. He was raised to the popedom in 1700 on account of his energy and ability, and displayed abundance of the former quality, but with singular want of success. He opposed the elevation of Prussia to a kingdom, and thus made himself ridiculous in Germany. In the war of the Spanish succession he voluntarily acknowledged Philip V, the grandson of Louis XIV of France, but was compelled by the imperial forces threatening Rome to recognize Charles III, the brother of Joseph I of Austria, as king of Spain. He lost Parma and Placentia, and was totally disregarded at the peace of Utrecht (1713). By this peace Sicily was given to Duke Victor Amadeus of Savoy, who denied the papal claim to Sicily, and when the pope had recourse to ban and interdict, expelled nearly all the priests from Sicily, and transported them to the papal states. The pope did not repeal ban and interdict until 1719, when Sicily fell to the power of the emperor of Austria. In the long controversy between the Dominicans and Jesuits concerning the observance of the pagan customs of China by converts, in which Innocent X had decided in favor of the Dominicans, and Alexander VII in favor of the Jesuits, Clement again declared against the Jesuits, who apparently submitted, but continued the controversy. In the Jansenistic controversy this pope took very decisive action by the bull Vineam Domini (July 16,1705), which demanded a strict adherence to the decrees of Innocent X and Alexander VIII against the book of Jansenius. Of still greater importance was the celebrated bull Unigenitus (Sept. 8,1713) against Quesnel's (q.v.) work on the New Testament, which produced an extraordinary commotion in the Gallican Church. The Bullar. Romans Contin. P. 11 (1727), contains 123 bulls, constitutions, letters, and briefs of Clement; and Contin. P. VI (1739), 183 constitutions. The life of Clement XI was written by Polidoro (Urbino, 1727), Lafiteau (Pad. 1752, 2 vols.), Reboulet (Avignon, 1752, 2 vols.), and by the Protestant Buder, Leben u. Thaten des kclugen Papstes Clementis XI (3 vols. Frankf. 1720). He died 1721. His works (Homilies) were published (2 vols. fol.) in Rome, 1729. — Ranke, Hist. Pap. b. 8; Hase, Ch. Hist. p. 513, 518; Wetzer u. Welte, KirchenLex. 2, 609,612; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 2, 737.

Bible concordance for CLEMENT.

Definition of clement

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