Clement VIII (2)
Pope (Ippolito Aldobrandini), was born in 1536, at Fano; became first a lawyer, subsequently consistorial advocate, auditor of the Rota, SEE ROTA, datarius (q.v.), and, in 1585, cardinal, and legate in Poland. He was elected pope Jan. 30, 1592. He was a cautious and politic ruler. He mediated the peace of Vervins between France and Spain. In the civil war of France he sided, like his predecessors, with the league against Henry IV. Even after the latter had joined the Church of Rome the pope hesitated to recognize him, and it was not until nearly the whole of France had recognized him that the pope consented to a solemn absolution of Henry (Dec. 17, 1597). Henry supported the annexation of Ferrara to the papal states, and reintroduced the Jesuits into France, while, on the other hand, the pope abstained from openly opposing Henry's edict of toleration. During his pontificate the king of Poland prevailed upon the metropolitan of Kiev and seven of the Ruthenian bishops to unite with the Church of Rome, and ambassadors arrived at Rome from the Coptic patriarch of Alexandria to negotiate a union of the Copts with the Church of Rome. He issued new editions of the Vulgate, the Roman Breviary, Missal, and of the Index. In order to settle the dogmatical controversy between Jesuits and Dominicans on divine grace, he instituted in 1597 the Congregatio de auxiliis divinae gratioe. A dispute with the republic of Venice was amicably settled. He died on March 5,1605. Baronius and Bellarmin were among the cardinals appointed by him. One hundred and twenty-three constitutions and decrees of this pope are contained in Bullar. Rom. Magnum, tom. 3. 1-170. His life was written by Cicarella. — Ranke, Hist. Pap. b. 6; Hase, Ch. Hist. p. 456, 466 sq.; Wetzer u. Weltc, Kirchen-Lex. 2, 603-640; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 2, 1136.