Claudius, Clemens bishop of Turin, sometimes called the "first Protestant Reformer," was born in Spain about the close of the eighth century, and educated under Felix of Urgel; whom he accompanied into France, Germany, and Italy, but whose errors there is no evidence that he adopted (Neander, Church History, 3. 430, Torrey's). Called to the court of Louis le Debonnaire to expound the Scriptures, he was sent by that monarch, when emperor, to the see of Turin (an event variously dated from 814 to 823) in order to oppose the prevailing tendency to image-worship. Not only against this form of idolatry, but against the worship of saints, of relics, and of the cross, against the abuse of pilgrimage, against the rising claims of tradition, prelacy, and the Romish see, he maintained a vigorous and able opposition till his death in 839, with such success and such results as usually attend those, whose errors fall on the side of boldness rather than of timidity. Pope Paschal I reproved Claudius; he replied that so long as "the pope did the works of an apostle, he recognized his apostolical character, but otherwise, then Mt 23:2-3, applied to him." His writings are chiefly commentaries on several books of Scripture, composed principally of extracts from the fathers, and especially from Augustine. Many remain in MS. in various French libraries. His Comm. in Galatas, and excerpts from his Apologeticum, are given in Bibl. Max. Patr. 14:See Neander, Ch. Hist. 3. 429 sq.; Gieseler, Ch. Hist. per. 3. div. 1, § 12; Hagenbach, Hist. of Doctrines, 2, 422; Murdoch's Mosheim, Ch. Hist. 1, 218, 225; Rudelbach, Claud. Taur. Episcop. inedit. opp. specimina (Copenhagen, 1824, 8vo); Schmidt, in Zetschrift fiir die hist. Theol. 1843.