(1.) To strike or afflict one for his advantage and correction; and to refuse or despise chastisement, or correction, is to undervalue it, and be not reformed by it (Jer 2:30; Jer 7:28; Heb 12:5). The overthrow of the Jewish nation by the Chaldaeans was the chastisement of a cruel one; it was very severe, and inflicted by cruel instruments (Jer 30:14).
(2.) To punish in just wrath (Le 26:28). Thus the chastisement of our peace was laid on Christ; that punishment, by the bearing of which our reconciliation with God is effected, was laid on him as our surety (Isa 53:5). To chasten one's self is to be exercised before God in self-abasement, fasting, and prayer (Da 10:12). The Scriptures are for correction; by their powerful influence they pierce a man to the heart, and make him amend his evil courses (2Ti 3:16).