Chase (צוּד, רָדִŠ, διὠκω, etc.). The practice of hunting wild animals early prevailed among the nomade Hebrews (Ge 25:28; Ge 27:3 sq.), and continued to later times to be a common employment (Le 17:13; Pr 12:27; Josephus, War, 1:21, 13), both for the sake of the flesh of the game (Sirach 36:21; but in the Sabbatical year it was allowed to multiply, Ex 23:11; Le 25:7; comp. Michaelis, Mos. Recht, 3:178 sq.), and also for the extermination of noxious beasts (2Sa 23:20), of both which there was no lack in Palestine (see Harmar, 1:328 sq.). The means employed in this pursuit were usually the bow (Ge 27:3), the spear or javelin (comp. Strabo, 15:734), the net (רֶשֶׁת, מַכמָר, מָצוֹד; which was likewise used for the larger kinds of animals, as gazelles, Isa 51:21, and even for lions, Eze 19:8), the sling (צִמַּים, פִּח, מוֹקֵשׁ, 9:12; Ps 91:3), and the pitfall (פִּחִת, שִׁחִת, Plin. 10:54; comp. Eze 19:4; 2Sa 23:20), the last especially for the lion (Shaw, Trav. 152 sq.). Compare the description in Job 18:8 sq. They do not appear to have had hunting dogs (yet comp. Joseph. Ant. 4:8, 9), and it is doubtful if in hunting birds they used trained falcons or other species of birds (Elian, Anim. 8:24), although hawks (Harmar, 3:79), like hounds (Odyss. 19:438; Strabo, 5:215; Philostr. Icon. 1:28; Polyb. 31:22; Curt. 9:1, 31; Plin. 8:61; Becker, Charicles, 1:389) were anciently, and, still are universally common in the East (Shaw, Travels, p. 300; Kampfer, Amaen. p. 131). On the Egyptian monuments hunting scenes are frequently represented (Wilkinson, 1:212 sq.). Hunting became an aristocratic sport (Meurs. ad Lycophr. 499) at least in later periods of Jewish history (Josephus, Ant. 15:7, 7; 16:10, 3; see also Philo, 2:356; comp. Heindorf on Horace, Sat. 2:2, 9). Instances occur in which men of strength overcame wild animals even without weapons (Jg 14:6; 1Sa 17:35). (See Jahn's Bibl. Archceol. § 52.) SEE NIMROD.
The instruments and modes of the chase are sometimes used figuratively, to indicate the wiles of an adversary, great danger, or impending destruction (Ps 9:16; Ps 57:6; Ps 91:3; Ps 94:13; Ps 119:85; Pr 26:27; Isa 24:17; Isa 42:22; Jer 5:26; Jer 6:21; Jer 16:16; Jer 18:22; Jer 48:44; Am 3:5; Ho 13:14; Lu 21:35; Ro 11:9; 1Co 15:55). SEE HUNTING.