Celestines, or Coelestines
Celestines, Or Coelestines
(1.), an order of barefooted Minorites, SEE DISCALCEATI;
(2.) a mohastic order, so called from the founder, Pietro de Murrone, afterwards Celestine V, in 1254. After his death his order made great progress, not only in Italy, but likewise in France, whither the then general, Peter of Tivoli, sent twelve religious, at the request of king Philip the Fair, who gave them two monasteries, one in the forest of Orleans, and the other in the forest of Compeigne, at Mount Chartres. This order had at one time 200 monasteries in Italy, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. They had about ninety-six convents in Italy, and twenty-one in France, under the name of priories. Their Constitutions consisted of three parts: the first refers to the provincial chapters and the election of superiors; the second contains the regular observances; and the third, the visitation and correction of the monks. The rule required the Celestines to rise two hours after midnight to say matins; to eat no flesh except when in sickness; to fast every Wednesday and Friday from Easter to the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross; and from that feast to Easter, everyday. Their dress was a white gown, a capuche, and a black scapulary; in the choir, and out of the monastery, a black cowl with the capuche; shirts of serge. The order is decayed; in Italy a few monasteries survive. SEE FRANCISCANS.