the rendering in the Auth. Vers. of the Hebrews חָרָשׁ, charash' (2Sa 5:11; 1Ch 14:1; Isa 44:13, etc.), as also of its Greek equivalent τέχτων.(Mt 13:55; Mr 6:3; Mr 1 Esdr. 5:14; Ecclus. 38:27, etc.), a general name, applicable to an artificer in stone, iron, or copper, as well as in wood. SEE ARTIFICER. The Hebrews, at a very early period, appear to have made considerable progress in these arts (Ex 35:30-35). SEE ART. Of their works, however, we have no existing remains; but by a reference to the antiquities of Egypt, the country where their proficiency was acquired, we may obtain a satisfactory notion of their general character. SEE HANDICRAFT. Tools of various kinds used in carpentry, as axes, hammers, saws, planes, chisels, and center-bits, are represented on the ancient monuments, and to most of them we find allusions in Scripture (1Sa 13:19-20; Jg 4:21; Isa 10:15; Isa 44:13). There appears but little difference between these implements and those of our time. SEE TURNER. The ancient Egyptians were acquainted with the art of veneering: this proves that they knew. the use of glue. They had chairs and couches of very graceful form (comp. Ge 43:33; 1Sa 4:18). Among the works of the Egyptian artists are found tables, bureaus, wardrobes, and coffers; several of the latter, probably designed for jewel-cases, rival in beauty the caskets of gold and silver. SEE MECHANIC.