The prominence of this range both in the geography of Palestine and the history of the Bible, justifies a few additional particulars, which we gather from Conder, Tent Work, 1, 168 sq.
"Carmel is best described as a triangular block of mountains, the apex being the promontory on which the Carmelite monastery stands. The watershed runs southeast from this point for twelve miles, to the Mahrakah or 'place of burning,' a peak visible from Jaffa in fine weather, south of which lies Wady el-Milh, and above that valley a large volcanic outbreak near the apparent center of upheaval of the Carmel ridge. Another center also exists farther west, near Ikzim. The highest part of the mountain is 1740 feet above the sea at the Druse village of Esfia. The peak of Mahrakah is only 1687 feet high, and the promontory by the monastery 500, but the slope of the shed is gradual, Long spurs run out westward from this ridge and fill up the triangle, their western extremities having steep slopes above a narrow plain along the sea-coast. In the valleys among them are two fine springs, and others smaller. The north-eastern declivity of the ridge is extremely steep, and file cliffs occur in places. At the foot of the mountain are numerous springs feeding the Kishon, which runs beneath, gradually diverging northwards. The little town of Haifa nestles under the promontory, by which it is sheltered from the southwest wind, its bay forming the best harbor on the coast. On the north side of the bay is St. Jean d'Acre, twelve miles along the curve of the shore from Haifsa. On the narrow plain between Calmel and the sea there are also many places of interest. Sycamiuon, Geba of Horsemen, Calamson, Elijah's Fountain, the Crusading Capernaum, and the strong and beautiful Chateau Pelerin, with, its little advanced port of Le Detroit. On Carmel itself is a ruined synagogue, and on the south of the range, beneath the inland cliffs, are the fine springs feeding the Crocodile river.
"Carmel, the place of thickets, was at one time cultivated, as shown by the rock wine-presses among its copses. In 1837 it had many villages on its. slopes, but these were ruthlessly destroyed by Ibrathim Pacha, and only. two now remain Esfit, in the main ridge, Ed-Dalieh, on a high spur; both are inhabited by the mountain loving Druses, and are remarkable for their race of fine, handsome men and beautiful women, some with: flaxen curly hair and blue eyes. The whole mountain is covered thickly with brushwood, mastic, hawthorn, the spurge laurel, and, on the top, dwarf pines; the luxnriance of the vegetation, rolling down the valleys between the steep graly and rusty cliffs like a dark cataract, attest-s tie richness of the red Soil, and the fine mountain air makes Carmel the healthiest district in Palestine. Among the thickets game abounds the Nimi or hunting leopard, wild pigs, gazelles, and fallow deer; partridges and other birds are seen continually in riding about the mountain. To this, known faunas we were able to make an important addition. From natives of Haifa we learned that a kind of deer called Yahmur was to be found on Carmel, and, offering a reward, we procured from some of the Arab charcoal burners a specimen, which resembled the English roebuck." (See cut on p. 806.)