Carinthia and Carniola
Carinthia And Carniola.
The province of Carinthia (German, Kärnthen), since 1336, has been an appanage of the dukes of Austria. In olden times it was included in Slavonia, and during the wars with Germany the first seeds of Christianity were sown. The princes of Carinthia had become Christians by the middle of the eighth century, yet the mass of the people did not embrace it before the latter part of the ninth century. In Carniola (German, Krain) which is also a duchy of Austria, Christianity was earlier propagated. Fortunatus, deacon of Hermagoras, first bishop of Aquileia, is said to have first introduced it in Laibach, and up to 1463 Laibach was an archdeaconry of Aquileia.
At the Reformation, Luther's doctrine spread rapidly through these two provinces, and Primus Truber (q.v.), who first promulgated them there, became canon of Laibach in 1531; yet he had afterward to leave the country and retire to Wurtemberg, from whence he supplied his countrymen with evangelical books and tracts, partly in Slavonic and partly in Latin. In 1555 almost the whole population of both provinces had adopted the Reformation, and Truber went back in 1561, taking with him the first printer there had been in the country, John Mandel (Manlius). In 1597, a letter of prince-bishop Thomas Chrön to the pope shows that but one twentieth of the population, and that among the lower classes, adhered to Romanism. Yet want of unity among the ministers, and a growing tendency to indulge in scholastic and dogmatic discussions, opened the doors again to Rome, and in 1579 some of the ministers were driven away. The Roman Catholic element steadily increased until, in 1598, all the Protestant ministers were commanded by the emperor Ferdinand II to leave within fourteen days. In 1601 the same command was issued for the laity, who were to recant or emigrate within six weeks. Most preferred the latter alternative, and went into Bohemia, Hungary, and Germany. This state of things continued until the promulgation of the celebrated edict of toleration by Joseph II in 1781.
The denominational statistics of the two provinces were, according to the official census of 1880, as follows: Carinthia — Roman Catholics, 331,027; United Greeks, 9; Non-united Greeks, 1; Lutherans, 17,466: Reformed, 55. Carniola — Roman Catholics, 480,079; United Greeks, 201; Non-united Greeks, 319; Lutherans, 381; Reformed, 123; other sects, 4. There are three bishoprics: 1st, the see of Laibach, suffragan of the diocese of Görz, with 205 livings, 83 cures, 50 benefices, 676 secular priests, and 44 regular priests; 2d, the see of Gurk, belonging to the archbishopric of Salzburg, contains 204 livings, 72 cueneres, 11 bfices, and counts 421 secular-priests, and 17 regular priests; 3d, the see of Lavant, suffragan of Salzburg, with 169 livings, 43 cures, 171 benefices, 405 secular priests, and 72 regular priests. In Carniola there are also 5 convents, occupied by 67 monks, and 2 by 55 nuns; in Carinthia there are 70 of the latter, and 8 convents.
The Lutherans are subject to the Superintendent at Vienna. They have in the district of Klagenfurth 2 circuits, with 2 ministers; and in that of Villach, 14 districts and 14 ministers. The latter districts are: 1, Oriach, 1415 persons; 2, Bleiberg, 1000; 3, Dornbach, 605; 4, Eisentratten, 953; 5, Feffernitz, 621; 6, St. Peter, 1624; 7, Fresach, 1600; 8, St. Ruprecht, 1429; 9, Trebesing, 1250; 10, Fresdorf, 831; 11, Watschig, 1168; 12, Zlan, 1586; 13, Weisbriach, 1173; 14, Gaesau, 900; 15, Feldkirchen, 800. — De conversione Carantanorum (anonymous); Waldau, d. Geschichte d. Protest. 1. Oesterreich, Steyermark, Kärnthen u. Krain (Anspach, 1783, 2 vols.); Herzog, Real-Encyklopädie, 7:208, from which this article is condensed.