Caraffa, Antonio, an Italian theologian, born at Naples in 1538, was a distant relative of pope Paul IV, who caused him to be educated under William Sirlet. Upon the death of that pontiff he shared the disgrace of his family, and, stripped of all his titles, fled to Padua, where he gave himself up to study. Pius V recalled him to Rome, and in 1586 made him cardinal; and, shortly afterwards, head of the congregation established for the correction of the text of the Bible. He became, under Gregory XIII, apostolical librarian, and died Jan. 12, 1591, leaving a Catenia Veterum Patsum in Omnia S. Scripturce Cantica (Cologne, 1572, 8vo) He also edited the Greek text of the Sept., given with the Notes and Scholia of Morinus (Rome, 1587, fol.); the Letters or Decretals of the Popes, from St. Clement to Gregory VII (3 vols.); and an edition of the Vulgate (Rome, 1588). See Biog. Univ. vii, 107; Jocher, Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon, s.v.