A square-tapped cap is worn in the English universities, like that of the theologists before the Reformation, except that it has stiffening, and a tassel in lieu of a tuft. In Flanders the priest wore his cap at baptisms. A round, low cap, sometimes having a broad brim, which was doubled down on reaching the choir, was often worn by canons from the end of the 13th century: at; Antwerp the color was purple; at Pisa and Cologne it. was scarlet. The red cap was also used by doctors of divinity at Oxford; it Was square and steepled, but just before the Reformation was worn square. In foreign universities tassels served by way of distinction. The D.C.L. and D.M. still retain the use of the round cap 5, which in 1605 was worn by all undergraduates. When the cap was worn in choir the upper part of the amice was thrown back like a hood,. hen it looked like a low mitre, and muffled the shoulders, having a fringe made of the tails of the animals of whose fur it was made. Then the amice was stitched in front, with a hole for the wearer's head, and about the beginning of the 15th century became a tippet, or short cape.' In the early part of the next century it was worn like a shawl, longer behind than before, and with two strips like a stole narrowing to a point, but appearing as a ruff over the shoulders. The use of the cap lined with fur was permitted by pope Honorius III at Canterbury, at Peterborough, and Croyland, from Michaelmas to Easter, in consequence of the cold. Canons were allowed to use it in church, except during the canon of the mass, the verse "And was incarnate," and the benediction. The assistant deacon and subdeacon were forsaken to use the cap. At Stoke College caps and not hoods were worn. The golden cap which pope Sylvester sent to St. Stephen, in 1000 is used at the coronation of the kings of Hungary. SEE BIRETTA; SEE ZUCHETTO.

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