Canons, Honorary, are canons exempted from observing the hours. Sovereign princes and nobles were occasionally regarded as honorary canons of cathedrals; as the emperor, at Strasburg, Liege, Bamberg, Ratisbon, Cologne, Spiers, Utrecht, Aix-la-Chapelle, St. Peter's and St. John Lateran, Rome; the king of France, at Poictiers, Chalons, Sens, Anjou, Tours, and as warden of St. Quentin and abbot of St. Hilary; the king of Spain, at Burgos, Toledo, and Leon; and the queen of England, as first cursal of St. David's. The prerogative was due to the unction of the sovereign at coronation. The dukes of Bourges and Burgundy had stalls at Lyons; the count D'Astorga at Toledo; the duke of Brabant at Utrecht; the count De Chasteluz at Autun; and the counts of Anjou at Tours. The princes of Mecklenburg held four prebends at Strasburg. The twenty extravagantes at Toledo assisted only on certain anniversaries. In cathedrals of the new foundation twenty- four honorary canons, so called by a blunder, may be appointed by the bishop, pursuant to a recent act of parliament; they may be called upon to take duty in church, but have no vote in chapter. In foreign cathedrals they are called supernumerary, fictitious, or improper canons, not being regarded as of the body. There are three classes in foreign churches;
(1) Expectants, canonici in herba, with right of succession to the next vacancy.
(2) Honorary, canonici in ae, merely titulars, without succession, but having a stall it' the chapter concede it.
(3) Supernumeraries, by-canons, added by a new foundation. The honorary canon is not bound to residence, can- retain a living requiring continuous residence, and is not to be called canon, but always honorary canon.